ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2023-05-01T22:31:44-04:00 Prof. N.A. Aviara Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Surface Modified Ukam Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites 2023-03-30T09:19:25-04:00 G. E. Okpanachi A. Abugh G. B. Nyior U. H. Suleiman <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This work evaluated the properties of ukam fibre reinforced polyester composites. The ukam fibres were subjected to different surface treatments including alkaline, saline, permanganate and acetylation. Composites were produced at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% fiber loadings and its mechanical properties determined. The results found that the most suitable mixture for excellent improvement in mechanical properties&nbsp;&nbsp; was obtained with the 25% fibre and 75% resin. Additionally, the results showed improvements in mechanical properties with surface treatments at all fibre loadings. Furthermore, it was observed that Fibre Surface treatment leads to compatibility which resulting in good load transfer between the modified fibre and matrix. Whereas acetylation treated composites exhibited the highest values of hardness at all levels of fibre loading, alkaline treated samples exhibited the highest tensile and compressive strengths at all fibre loadings. It is noteworthy that saline treated composites exhibited highest impact and flexural modulus of rupture. Interestingly, there was no significant improvement noticed with potassium permanganate treated reinforced fibre composites. Therefore, the results clearly showed that alkaline, saline, and acetylation fibre surface treatment methods could be used to produce ukam fibre composites with good mechanical properties for potential engineering applications.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Evaluation of the Influence of Ground Wastes Glass on Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete 2023-03-30T09:30:58-04:00 A. M. Auwal M. O. A. Mtallib M. T. Abdulwahab A. Mohammed <p>The construction industry is largely reliant on the use of cement-based products. Every tonne of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) emits equivalent amount of CO<sub>2</sub> into the atmosphere, contributing to increased raw material consumptions and environmental concerns. In this regard, the use of waste materials that can be blended with OPC as partial or full replacement to reduce the environmental impacts is strongly desirable. This research was experimentally carried out to evaluate the influence of ground waste glass (GWG) as a partial replacement of cement in high performance concrete (HPC). A grade 50 HPC was designed based on ACI 211.1-91. Various experiments were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the HPC. Tests include specific gravity of constituent materials, sieve analysis of GWG and aggregates, slump flow of fresh HPC, compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of hardened HPC were carried out. The chemical composition analysis of GWG was conducted using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analytical method. HPC cubes, cylinders and beams were cast, cured and tested at curing ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days using 0, 5, 10 15, 20 and 25 percentage replacement levels. The optimum compressive strength of 57.44 N/mm<sup>2</sup> was obtained at 10% cement replacement after 28 days of curing age. The slump test result shows that the workability of the HPC decreased as the GWG content increases. Generally, the strengths of HPC reduced as the percentage of GWG replacement increased beyond 10% but increases with curing age. Therefore, 10% is the optimum replacement level of GWG for cement in HPC.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Validation of wet chemistry method as alternative to gas chromatography for biogas methane content determination 2023-03-30T09:43:56-04:00 T. H. Ibrahim E. Betiku B. O. Solomon J. O. Oyedele G. O. Olaifa A. A. Adekunle <p>Anaerobic digestion technology has the potential for simultaneous waste treatment and biogas generation. Its rate of dissemination and adoption in most developing countries has however, slowed down for many years partly due to inadequate research facilities such as advanced gas measuring equipment, and associated cost of analyses. This study, therefore, tested and validated the use of classical wet chemistry analysis method (CWCAM) as a readily accessible and cheaper alternative to gas chromatographic method (GCM), for determining the proportion of methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) in produced biogas. Biogas samples were simultaneously collected every week in 5 ml and 20 ml hypodermic syringes, from a digester in which cassava vinasse (CV) was being codigested with poultry droppings (PD), using ruminal fluids of cattle (RFC) as inoculum. While samples in 5ml syringes were analyzed using the GCM, the 20 ml samples were analyzed using the CWCAM, to determine the percentage of methane in the biogas samples collected each week. The corresponding volumes, corrected to standard temperature and pressure (STP) condition was then calculated. The results from both analytical methods were statistically analyzed and compared using the Data Analysis tool in Microsoft Office Excel. The difference in results from the two methods ranged from -3 to +2.9% with CWCAM giving slightly higher values of methane percentage. Overall, a relatively high coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9728) and low standard error (SE = 1.4) of the regression equation between the two sets of results indicate that the two methods may be used interchangeably.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Evaluation of Evaporative Cooling Structure (ECS) and Artificially Aerated Onion Structure (AAOS) for Storage of Fresh Red Onion. 2023-03-30T09:53:23-04:00 E. A. Adu E. I. Bamishaiye B. Ibrahim J. Jude O. S. Kamaldeen A. A. Isiaka <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Storage of onion usually by cooling has been problematic due to poor electricity supply. Thus, this study assessed the effectiveness of artificially aerated onion structure (AAOS) and evaporative cooling structure (ECS) for the storage of fresh red onion. A total of 4650kg of red onion was stored for 7 months (March to October) and was monitored monthly to observe physiological and biochemical changes using AAOC and other standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and t-test at significant difference of P&lt;0.05 using SPSS. Increase in the percentage weight loss of the stored onion was observed as relative humidity increased especially when the relative humidity surpassed 50%. ECS had 27.03% weight loss recorded in May (2nd month of storage) while AAOS had 11.1% weight loss in July (Fourth month of storage). At the end of the experiment the average weight loss was 65.76%, 72.00%, and 76.12% for AAOS, Conventional method and ECS respectively. There was an increasing trend in the proteins, carbohydrates and oil contents of onion in AAOS and were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than the increase in conventional storage method and ECS. Declining trend was observed in ascorbic acids (AA) contents in the stored onions in all treatments leaving more retention (10.4% AA and 5.48% AA), in AAOS and conventional storage method respectively more than in ECS. Total polyphenolic contents increased from an initial 5.10±0.02 to 12.08±0.00, 9.95±1.03 and 8.97±1.03 GAE (mg/g) fresh weight in AAOS, conventional storage method and ECS respectively<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Geospatial Multi Criteria Selection of Best Sanitary Landfill Site and their Geotechnical and Digital Image Analysis. 2023-03-30T10:09:48-04:00 H. I. Mohammed Y. B. Yamusa Z. Majid K. Ahmad <p>Contaminations caused by municipal waste affect not only the soil but also water and air. In many parts of the world, there are many uncontrolled landfills that often lack the necessary anti-fouling barrier systems which causes leachate to permeate the underlying groundwater making it toxic for consumption. This research presents a sustainable method in which sanitary landfills can be sited using geospatial multi criteria method and the subsequent application of geotechnical and digital image analysis. Due to the large volume of spatial data, thus, Geographic Information System was used to handle, evaluate, and process these data. Meanwhile, Analytical Hierarchy Process was applied to solve decision making problems where multiple alternatives and competing objectives are involved. The results revealed three most suitable sites for sustainable sanitary landfilling in the research area. These most suitable sites were further examined using geotechnical criteria in laboratory to obtain the best site. Engineering property relating to permeability was investigated. The results show that only one amongst the three sites achieved maximum regulatory range of permeability value of 10-9 m/s. Additionally, computer modeling through digital image technique was used to visualize the leachate flow and validate the laboratory experimentation. The leachate migrated through the soil covering a depth of 2.51 mm in one month, having a velocity of 10-9 m/s which is within the recommended permeability value. Therefore, this model could be used as a guide for sustainable sanitary landfilling in developed and developing countries.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Corrosion of Aluminium Metal in Food Environments and its Associated Health Risk Issues: A Review 2023-03-30T10:17:36-04:00 T. N. Guma M. M. Maikudi <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>A material for use in contact with food must have adequate strength and integrity to avoid its accidental fracture and leaching of pernicious substances into the food due to corrosion or abrasion of the material. This review covers the basics of aluminium metal and its corrosion in food-handling usage and the associated health-risk issues of its particle intake by human food consumers, as well as current research on the topic. The review findings show that aluminium metal has outstanding advantages in food handling in terms of low cost, wide availability, light weight, ability to heat and cool fast, high temperature tolerance, good corrosion resistance, and perennial shiny appearance in unpolluted natural environments. Its other advantage is excellent formability into designed kitchenware shapes. On the other hand, the findings show that aluminium metal has lower strength and hardness integrity. It is also leachable with lower health-safety level for food-handling usage compared to many other food-grade metals such as stainless steel. Furthermore, daily intake of aluminium substances above 10 mg per kilogram by an individual is risky to their health. The other findings are that food environments with high chloride, acidity, and alkalinity contents can cause greater corrosion of aluminium metal to leach its particles into food, with a higher chance of intaking the particles into the human body system than other food environments. Finally, the findings show that only appropriately alloyed and adequately coated aluminium of sufficient strength should be used in contact with food. The information from the review is meant to serve as a consolidated current literature position on corrosion in the use of aluminium metal for food handling and associated health-risk issues for safe-guarding or a way forward by researchers and stakeholders that need background information for making the metal safer for food handling.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Evaluating the Effect of Temperature and Prolong Storage on Hibiscus Cannabinus (kenaf) Extracts in Drinking Water Treatment 2023-03-30T10:42:22-04:00 A. N. Jones B. B. Kurna U. A. Ibrahim <p>Access to clean drinking water is a fundamental human right. Yet, improved drinking water is still a major challenge in many developing countries today, retarding progress and human development. This study investigated the coagulation performance of denatured kenaf crude extract (KCE) in water treatment using a jar tester. To assess its coagulation performance, KCE suspension samples were heated at 60, 97 and 140 °C for 2, 4 and 6 h while the remaining samples were stored for 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days respectively prior to the test. The results show that maximum turbidity removal of approximately 98, 97 and 99% was achieved with sample heated to 60, 97 and 140 °C from 86% recorded with the unheated sample. Interestingly, KCE which had been stored for 3-day duration achieved maximum turbidity removal of 84% compared with the 88% recorded with the fresh sample, although at a dosage, far lower (40 mg/l) than that of the fresh sample (80 mg/l). Therefore, the use of denatured KCE by heating is advantageous for people in developing countries which resulted in improved turbidity removal performance. Conversely, storing the crude sample did not improve the efficiency but its performance was remarkable at lower dosage.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Effect of Loading Rate on Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cassava Roots (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in Bending 2023-05-01T22:31:44-04:00 N. R. Nwakuba S. N. Asoegwu G. A. Makanjuola <p>The effect of loading rate on the viscoelastic response of cassava roots, at a moisture content of 52.13 ± 5.74% (w.b.), to applied bending forces was studied. Experiments were conducted using a modified Instron Testing Machine (ITM) of 1 kN capacity, to investigate both creep and stress relaxation (viscoelastic) behaviour of cassava roots (variety TME 419) when static bending forces were applied at mid-span with loading rates of 2.7, 4.2, 5.3, 7.45, and 9.9 mm min<sup>-1</sup>. The creep behaviour indicated that the creep compliance may be described using a 4-element model consisting of Maxwell and Kelvin models in series. The retardation time and the instantaneous creep compliance of cassava root were found to be 25.5 s and 0.03009 (N mm<sup>-2</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The stress relaxation behaviour could be represented using a 2-element Maxwell approach with a parallel-orientated spring. The relaxation times are 20 and 500 s, for the range of the loading rates. Relaxation modulus was found to be a function of the degree of loading, rising as the degree of loading intensified and decreasing with time. As the loading rate increased from 2.7 – 9.9 mm min<sup>-1</sup>, the relaxation modulus increased from 1.25 – 6.89 N mm<sup>-2</sup>. The result of this study gives an idea of the food product attributes vis-à-vis its strength characteristics to mechanical damage. It guides the food process engineer in estimating the impact of stress on cassava roots during postharvest operations for optimum design of efficient cassava peeling machines and product storage quality. Prospects for further work were stated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Effect of Chemical Fertilizers on Groundwater Quality in an Unconfined Aquifer 2023-04-10T13:31:39-04:00 A. R. Adesiji O. D. Jimoh P. A. Adeoye A. J. Odofin O. E. Asogwa J. A. Mangey O. M. Odekunle <p><em>The use of fertilizer on soil to improve agricultural yield has been practiced for years. While fertilizers and manures greatly improve crop yield, it is also important to consider their corresponding and devastating effects. In this study, the fertilizers application rate was varied and their effects on groundwater quality with soil depths of 30 cm and 60 cm were observed. Two fabricated lysimeters were used to collect soil samples undisturbed and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The samples in the lysimeters were made saturated and varying quantities of fertilizers from 87.37 g, 100 g. and 120 g were applied. The saturation of the samples was done through an improvised rainfall simulator which was set up in such a way that a constant discharge was adopted. Water samples were collected at 30 cm and 60 cm depths and analyzed for fertilizer residues and physico-chemical characteristics such as temperature, pH, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron were also analysed. The results showed that the more the quantities of fertilizers applied on the soil, the more it affects the physico-chemical properties of the water and renders it toxic and unsuitable for drinking purposes except treated. The results, however revealed that the concentrations of the fertilizers in the groundwater decreases with soil depths. It is therefore recommended that any groundwater being explored for domestic use close to soil surface in areas prone to fertilizer pollution should be well treated before consumption, most especially for people using shallow wells.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria An Automated Prototype System for Alcohol Level Detection in Drunk Drivers and Vehicle Control. 2023-04-10T13:52:13-04:00 J. Akanni B. Adewusi A. A. Isa R. A. Alao <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Drunk driving is one of the principal contributors to road accidents in Nigeria. Passengers, other motorists and the driver's life are all at risk because of this behavior. The aim of this study is to develop a system that will automatically detects drunken drivers based on the proximity to the steering wheel and prohibits the car from been start. The method employed in this research is the use of an MQ-3 sensor to measure the level of alcohol in the driver's breath in the area around where the driver sits in a car and compare it to the Nigerian guidelines for acceptable blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels. In addition, the alcohol sensor is protected from obstruction (coverage) by an MH infrared proximity sensor. Also, a red light alert is incorporated to sensitize the passenger whenever the driver is drunk. The result shows that the system performed satisfactorily. It prompt quicker reaction by prohibition of drunk drivers within a distance of 36 cm from the steering wheel from being able to start the car as well as sensitizes the passenger through blinking red light. It also prevent the systems sensor from been cover (obstruction) by drunk drivers within a distance of 5 cm. As a result, the system can be combined with the new technologies of modern vehicles to enforced don’t drive when drunk rules which are often violated by drunk drivers</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Effect of Moisture Content on some Physical Properties of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Grown in North Eastern Nigeria 2023-04-10T14:03:03-04:00 N. A. Aviara R. A. Ma’aji <p><em>This study was aimed at determining some physical properties of red kidney bean seed as a function of moisture content. In the moisture range of 6.84-15.74% (d.b), seed length, width and thickness increased from 11.4-16.83mm, 6.2-8.87mm and 4.3-5.16mm, and Arithmetic and Geometric diameters increased from 8.6-10.29mm and from 8.3-9.14mm, respectively. In the above moisture range, one thousand seed weight, seed surface area, true density, and porosity increased linearly, while sphericity increased logarithmically, and angle of repose increased as a polynomial of the second order with moisture content. Bulk density decreased with increase in moisture content in the above moisture range. Static coefficient of friction on all the structural surfaces applied increased logarithmically with moisture content, and kinetic coefficient of friction on the surface all increased linearly with moisture content except on fiber glass where the increase was polynomial of the second order. Static and kinetic coefficients of friction were highest on Hessian bag material and lowest on fiber glass. Regression models that could be used to express the relationship between the physical properties and moisture content, with high coefficients of determination, were established. The data obtained in this study would be applicable in the design of red kidney bean seed handling and storage facilities.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Sizing Analysis of Hybrid Energy Supply for Buildings Integrated with Battery Storage 2023-04-10T14:11:51-04:00 U. A. Mukhtar M. Shuwa A. B. Muhammad <p><em>One of the limitations in the application of renewable energy sources is the intermittency and variability in its supply. This characteristic has attracted many researchers and stake-holders to focus on the application of different types of hybrid energy technologies with storage systems to improve in the efficiency of the supply and dispatch ability of the system. The application of hybrid energy technology to generate heat and electricity is very popular nowadays and sustainable in the supply of energy for on-grid and off-grid services. The sizing of the hybrid energy supply is paramount to saving energy and meeting the energy demand at all time. This research work involves an analysis for sizing hybrid energy supply integrated with battery storage to meet the energy demand for 3-bedroom, office, sports and school building. Merit modelling tool was applied for the demand and supply matching and analysis of the various chunks of technologies of PV, WT, CHP and generator were carried out based on the suitability to achieve the best matching. The results show that hybrid systems with output capacities of 2.96 MWh, 203.15 MWh, 1.38 MWh and 2.14 MWh were used to meet the energy demands of 3-bedroom, office, sports and school buildings. The office building energy sizing was achieved with a match rate of about 90% with no energy deficit. However, surplus energy of 34.2MWh was recorded. The 3-bedroom, sports and school energy sizing were achieved with less than 1MWh of energy surplus or deficit and a matching rate of about 60%. For future study, the performance of the identified energy technologies can be verified using an integrated building performance simulation tool to ascertain its feasibility.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Optimization of the Industrial use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable and Cost Effective Rural Electrification 2023-04-10T14:19:56-04:00 C. O. Njoku A. V. Gambo E. U. Uche <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>There is an inequitable access of rural communities to electricity services in Nigeria as demand supersedes generation. The provision of viable electricity to rural communities is hampered by some inefficiency bedeviling the allocation of energy resources coupled with the near depletion of fossil fuels. Due to capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources; most of these energy sources remain unexploited in Nigeria. This study aims at developing a general framework that can be utilized in Nigeria to minimize the total cost of installing renewable energy technologies while satisfying some predetermined constraints such as demand, supply and renewable energy potentials. Three scenarios were presented namely; prospective off-grid which accesses electricity level below 50%, on-grid which accesses electricity level above 50% and all-off-grid which finds the optimal cost of installing off-grid renewable energies. The results show that the total installation costs of the first and second scenarios are </em><em>₦</em><em>42,656,292,800 and </em><em>₦</em><em>49,908,650,400 respectively while that of the third scenario is found to be </em><em>₦</em><em>106,938,354,400 which represent the extent of renewable energy resources that could possibly incentivize the realization of wider renewable energy applications in rural Nigeria. Furthermore, it was observed that the combination of the off-grid and on-grid installations have the potential for a decentralized renewable energy resources, with minimum installation cost. This will not only improve the wellbeing of rural communities, but also enhance Nigeria’s energy and economic prospects for potential global investments</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fabrication and Evaluation of an Affordable Infant Radiant Warmer for use in Limited Resource Settings 2023-04-10T16:36:13-04:00 M. O. Ibitoye Y. K. Ahmed A. B. Saad T. M. Ajibola <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>The challenges of thermoregulation due to hypothermia, which is believed to underlie high infant morbidity and mortality rate, is common with underweight or preterm infants especially those from limited resource settings. Available devices in the market to check hypothermia are expensive, especially for most countries with between 2% to 10% of GDP on the healthcare budget. Affordable thermoregulation realization for infants is therefore of significant clinical importance in these settings. The aim of this study was to design and fabricate an affordable ($110) and clinically useful radiant warmer to facilitate hypothermia treatment. The radiant warmer was fabricated with an overhead radiant heater for heat radiation targeted at infants laid in a clinically comfortable foam mattress in a bassinet. A portable fan was placed above the heating element to facilitate downward heat flow. A biocompatible temperature sensor was also placed on the bassinet to monitor the infant’s body temperature. The warmer incorporated an Arduino-based PID temperature microcontroller to regulate the temperature of the heating element. The warmer, with castor wheels to aid the device’s mobility, has a strong and durable galvanized pipe stand capable of supporting the device. The device performance indicated an acceptable physiological heating temperature range of 36 °C - 36.5 °C within 20 min of warm-up and up to 36.7 °C in 30 min of use. Therefore, the device can be adjudged potentially useful in facilitating thermoregulation in infants by providing suitable thermal support. With these results and the potential of the device to reduce infant mortality rates and promote their growth, it is hereby recommended that the device may be fully deployed for clinical application</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria