ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2022-05-15T13:57:39-04:00 Prof. N.A. Aviara Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> Technical Appraisal of some Maize Shellers in Oyo and Kwara States of Nigeria 2022-05-14T18:17:51-04:00 M. O. Omobowale J. C. Ogwumike A. E. Olenloa O. R. Kolayemi A. A. Ala M. O. Omodara G. O. Otitodun S. I. Nwaubani K. E. Ileleji S. G. McNeill G. P. Opit <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This study assessed the performance of some maize shellers in use in grain markets in Oyo and Kwara States, Nigeria. A preliminary survey conducted identified shellers in use as basic maize sheller (BMS) without blower, maize sheller with blower attachment (MSB) and the multi-purpose sheller (MPS). The shelling/cleaning performance of the shellers were assessed using yellow maize (SWAN 1 variety) and some key equipment parameters, which impact performance were measured. The air velocity for MSB and MPS ranged between 0.4 and 2.4 m/s which was not sufficient for efficient cleaning of chaff from shelled grains. Shaft speed for BMS, MSB and MPS were 845, 920 and 820 rpm, respectively. Average throughput for BMS, MSB and MPS was 1,714, 600 and 840 kg/hr, respectively with mean shelling efficiencies of 92.9, 82.7 and 97.9%, respectively. Mean cleaning efficiencies were 54.0 and 57.7% for MSB and MPS, respectively. The percentage grain loss for BMS, MSB and MPS were 17, 7.1 and 1.9%, respectively. It was observed that many fabricators do not consult agricultural engineers when producing machines, relying more on previous experience. Additionally, there was a lack of consideration for operator safety with the exposure of moving parts of the equipment in all the designs evaluated.&nbsp; A key recommendation from this study is that sheller designs should be standardized to ensure the provision of quality and highly efficient machinery for processors.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria An Investigation of Soil Bearing Capacity for Building and Structural Foundation Design: A Case Study of Polo Area, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2022-05-14T18:45:19-04:00 I.S. Muhammad A.M Alkali K. Bulu <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="73%"> <p><em>The foundation of any structure is the back born of its stability against all kinds of deformation and this depends on the geotechnical behavior of the supporting soil. Clay soils usually posed serious threats to buildings due to shrink-swell behavior, settlements and low strength which is associated with their minerals. In this research, the safe bearing capacity of Polo soil have been investigated using direct shear laboratory analysis on twenty representative soil samples across virgin area where future development is approaching. Most of the soils were classified as lean clay with sand (CL) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) although some were otherwise. The average natural moisture content of the soils at 1m depth is 8.38% with liquid limit and plasticity index of 30.2% and 15.7% respectively while that of 1.5m were 9.14%, 29.4% and 14.6% respectively. Results also revealed an average friction angle and cohesion of 21º and 18 kN/m<sup>2</sup> at 1m and 22o and 19 kN/m<sup>2</sup> at 1.5m depths respectively. Safe bearing capacity values ranges from 44.95 to 411.11 kN/m<sup>2</sup> and 75.27 to 397.31 kN/m<sup>2</sup> for 1m and 1.5m respectively using foundation widths of 0.5m, 1m and 2m. Foundation design carried out using the different safe bearing capacities and load combinations revealed that the pad footings analyzed with 1500 kN indicated that the minimum footing size that could be used is 1800mm×1800mm using 400kN/m<sup>2</sup> safe bearing capacity. It also revealed that for a 100kN/m2 safe bearing capacity, the footing size is as much as 3500mm×3500mm which is very high and raft foundations were recommended for such situations.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Nigerian Water Resources Management – An Overview 2022-05-14T23:18:01-04:00 U. A. Ibrahim A. N. Alkali B. O. Sanyaolu B. Usman <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Effective management of a country’s water resources contributes toward its sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of Nigeria’s surface and underground water sources alongside agencies charged with functions covering all facets in water resources development and management.&nbsp; Nigeria consists of three broad agro-ecological zones; the northern Sudan Savannah, the Guinea Savannah and the southern rainforest spread across eight hydrological areas for the purpose of water resources management. The Federal Ministry of Water Resources is responsible for large water resources development projects and water allocation between states; comprising of sixteen (16) parastatals and agencies made up of twelve (12) River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs), Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA), Nigeria Integrated Water Resources Management Commission (NIWRMC), Gurara Water Management Authority (GWMA), and the National Water Resources Institute (NWRI). The country has four river drainage systems and 264 dams. Recent studies of Nigerian water reserves (surface and groundwater sources) indicated that there are large supplies, and the country has surface and groundwater resources potentials of 267.3BCM and 51.9BCM respectively.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Preparation and Characterization of Steam Activated Chicken Eggshell for Gaseous Pollutant Adsorption 2022-05-14T23:28:57-04:00 A. M. O. Abdul Raheem E. A. Adeoye <p><em>Air pollution is a major issue because it can immediately cause health problems. The primary pollutants are oxides of nitrogen, Sulphur, carbon, and oxidants. The collection, preparation, and characterization of chicken eggshell for the production of activated carbon useful in air purification, was carried out. The preparation was done in succession from raw uncarbonized to carbonized and then to steam activated form for adsorption of air pollutants. Powdered Eggshell was Carbonized at different temperatures in the range of 150-600 ºC to achieve optimum and effective temperature for best carbon content from its char. The best carbon yield was gotten at 450 ºC/1 hour in a carbolite type muffle furnace which gives less room for air flow. Thermal / steam activation of the carbonized eggshell was done at 500 ºC for 1 hour. The ash content, bulk density, electrical conductivity, pH, and moisture contents were analyzed respectively. The samples were characterized for their surface area and pore volume. The ash contents for the three samples were in the order Uncarbonized (41.76 %) &gt; Carbonized (32.62 %) &gt; Stean Activated (29.47 %) while the bulk density followed Carbonized (1. 19 g/ml) &gt; Steam Activated (1.11 g/ml) &gt; Uncarbonized (0.79 g/ml). All the three samples had the same value of 0.31 mS/cm for the electrical conductivity while two of the samples (carbonized and activated) had the same pH (8.1) and uncarbonized had a lower pH (7.9). The moisture contents ranged from 2 to 9 % with steam activated sample having the least and uncarbonised, the highest. Tapping density, surface area, pore volume, iodine number, % iodine absorbed values followed the order Steam active &gt; Carbonized &gt; Uncarbonized samples. The steam activated sample having the highest values of all these parameters showed it possesses high adsorption capacity for gaseous pollutants.</em></p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Comparative Analysis and Simulation of the d-q Reference Frame Model of the Three Phase Induction Motor and its Modification 2022-05-14T23:40:30-04:00 G. A. Olarinoye I. Abdulwahab <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Induction motors play an important role in residential, commercial, and industrial centers around the globe. They are rugged, reliable in operation and require low maintenance. The dynamic models of these motors are typically employed to understand their behavior in transient, steady state and under dynamic conditions. Several models of the three-phase induction motor exist in literature, but this paper proposes an alternative to the standard <em>d-q</em> reference frame model of the symmetrical three phase induction motor. The proposed model is obtained by modifying the standard model in a way in which the d-axis of the reference frame is aligned with the rotor flux vector. The alignment decouples the q-axis component from the d-axis component of the stator current using the vector control technique. The model is analyzed in the synchronous reference frame and then a dynamic simulation is performed. A comparison between the standard d-q reference frame model and the proposed model was performed. The simulation showed identical results of motor speed, torque and flux behavior for the two models. The difference between the two models manifests in their alternate characteristics for the d-q axes voltages and currents. It was observed that the magnitudes of the d-axis and q-axis voltages for the standard model are equal to the peak value of the applied phase voltages and zero respectively. However, the results of the proposed model revealed otherwise. Furthermore, it was observed that the d-q axis voltages and currents of the proposed model exhibit oscillations during motor acceleration time because of the dynamics of alignment but attain constant values during the time that motor speed is constant. The proposed model is easier to solve because the rotor dynamics are described by one equation instead of two equations as in the case of the standard <em>d-q</em> reference frame model<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Effects of Rice Husk Ash on Durability of Self-Compacting Concrete Made with Cassava Peel Ash 2022-05-14T23:54:32-04:00 M. T. Abdulwahab O. A. U. Uche A. Aboshio A. Mohammed A. Suleiman A. M. Auwal S. U. Chidawa <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable concrete with improved strength and surface smoothness. The preparation of SCC requires high amount of cement. This utilizes tremendous amount of energy and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It is critical to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions during Portland cement (PC) manufacture by partially replacing cement in the SCC. This study evaluates the durability characteristics of SCC produced using cassava peel ash (CPA) combined with rice husk ash (RHA) at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 percent cement replacement levels respectively. The effects of water absorption, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> attack, MgSO<sub>4</sub> attack, and high heat on SCC made with CPA and RHA blends were examined. The results show that, as CPA and RHA proportions rise by approximately 5% CPA and 10% CPA+RHA substitution, SCC compressive strength equates to design strength (grade 35). It was also discovered that CPA and RHA both enhance resistance to H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and MgSO<sub>4</sub> degradation, but perform poorly when exposed to elevated temperatures when compared to the control specimen. However, when CPA is utilized with RHA&nbsp;in SCC, the rate of water absorption is reduced to a minimum due to an enhanced pore structure of the CPA-SCC specimen. Generally, a 5% CPA content is considered as the optimum replacement of cement for self-compacting concrete with grade 35<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Conversion of Biomass to Adsorbent: A Review 2022-05-15T00:04:18-04:00 A. B. Ngulde K. Silas H. D. Mohammed A. L. Yaumi U. H. Taura H. H. Mari <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Tons of biomass are produced every year including organic agricultural and forestry by-products but they are of limited value<strong>. </strong>Mostly, in the developing countries, the biomasses are considered as waste and are being burnt or thrown to liter the environment as part of teaming solid waste. Presently, there are no sustainable long-term management strategies to use biomass. The utilization of biomass to produce activated carbon is a good approach that is industrially useful and environmentally benign materials. The adsorption technique is using adsorbents in the removal of heavy metals from water therefore, biomass can be converted to the adsorbent and utilized as a waste-to-wealth commodity in water purification. In this review, the suitable process for conversion of biomass to cheap and simple means of obtaining activation carbon as adsorbent is presented. The potential uses of biomass and the conversion stages including carbonization, pyrolysis, gasification, and activation were discussed. This work depicts that the issue of solid waste utilization to solve existing issues with locally available and cheap materials is beneficial to man and the environment<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Involvement of the General Public in the Management of Water Pollution in Johor Bahru Malaysia 2022-05-15T00:23:17-04:00 B. Y. Sanda A. U. Bah A. Ibrahim <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Water is undoubtedly the most delicate component of the ecosystem, but it is essential for human and industrial advancement. As the population grows, so does the demand for water supplies and drinkable water. Water covers roughly 71percent of the total earth’s surface and highly vital natural resource for humans. However, only 2.5 percent of the world's water is pure and thus drinkable. It is everyone's fundamental human right to have access to clean water. The purpose of this study is: to identify the current level of public involvement in water pollution management and to assess people's desire to participate towards reducing water pollution. The study's methodology is a quantitative approach for achieving the research objectives. A total of sixty-three (63) responses were reordered from the distribution of the questionnaires. The data collected were analysed using Microsoft Excel (2019) and simple percentage distribution tables and charts. The findings revealed that most of the participants have sewerage connections in their residences and that the water quality of their rivers is acceptable for majority of the participants. The study also indicated that water pollution is a grave concern for environmental and social health. In addition, it was observed that community involvement in water pollution decision-making processes was currently low on average, implying that authorities still have room to improve concerning water pollutant information delivery. Majority of respondents agreed that investing more money in water and waste management, and educating the public, are strategies to enhance water quality. Eventually, the findings revealed that the general public is enthusiastic about taking part in the fight against water pollution and are ready to participate in water pollution management in their community. The study recommends building a solid foundation to allow greater public involvement in decision-making and to enacting strict water pollution control policy<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Performance Evaluation of 200W Solar Photovoltaic Panel Considering Bauchi Microclimatic Conditions. 2022-05-15T00:31:12-04:00 K. Mustapha U. O. Aliyu G. A. Bakare <p><em>Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. This paper focuses on optimizing the performance of 200W solar module taking into consideration the local climatic conditions of Bauchi locality. The uncertainty in life cycle savings for solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) systems as linearly correlated with uncertainty in solar resource data. These uncertainties paved way for the need to conduct a critical assessment of the resource. Assessment of the solar resource for these technologies rely upon measured data, where available. In this paper, we present the development of mathematical model of photovoltaic solar cells based on their detailed single diode equivalent circuit representation. Pertinent simulation models for PV solar module both for an ideal weather situation and for taking into consideration the effects of microclimatic conditions that prevail in Bauchi as evaluated and compared with benchmarks available. The complete model of the PV system was implemented using MATLAB/Simulink platform.&nbsp; The standard characteristic curves for the 200W solar panel are as presented. The simulation of the ideal PV system made use of standard test conditions (STC) to facilitate comparison with the existing benchmark results in the literature. The analysis of the characteristics performance curves returned an average V<sub>OC</sub> = 42.9v and I<sub>SC</sub> = 4.21A. The simulation results further revealed that the power delivered by the 200W monocrystalline solar module of 144.3W @620W/m<sup>2</sup>, 35ºC as recorded for Bauchi under all climatic conditions as evaluated. The benchmark values obtained in the laboratory are V<sub>OC</sub> = 45.5V, I<sub>SC</sub> = 5.92A and 200-W under the Standard test condition (STC) conditions of cell temperature 25ºC, solar irradiance of 1000W/m<sup>2</sup> and air mass (AM) of 1.5. The average conversion efficiency and fill factor as evaluated are 0.77 and 16% respectively. This result agrees with the benchmark of module efficiency of &gt;15.66% recorded at STC. The results conclusively reveal that the microclimate of a locality essentially affects the performances of solar PV systems deployed to each location on the globe. Therefore, utilization of these parameters is essential for consideration in the design of solar systems in all localities.</em></p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Bleaching Process in Aqueous Solution using Sodium Hypochlorite 2022-05-15T00:42:18-04:00 F. O. Okeola F. O. Nwosu T. O. Abu E. O. Odebunmi O. B. Owolabi <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>The kinetics of bleaching process of oxidation of typical dye with a bleaching agent - sodium hypochlorite in aqueous medium was studied. The kinetic runs were executed using spectrophotometer to changes in concentration under pseudo first order whereby concentration of NaOCl was in large excess compared with the&nbsp;&nbsp; concentration of dye. The factors affecting the reaction rate that were studied include the concentration of dye and oxidant, temperature, ionic strength and pH of the bleaching reaction medium and the presence of a variable valence metal ion The result shows that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing in temperature, ionic strength and pH. Increasing in substrate and oxidant concentrations also increase the rate of oxidation. Higher observed rate constant k1 </em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>was obtained in the presence of Fe(III)ion. The Arrhenius activation energy for the oxidation in the absence and presence of Fe(III)ion are 56.21 kJmol<sup>-1</sup> and 51.21 kJmol<sup>-1</sup> respectively.&nbsp; The result of thermodynamic parameters such as the lowering of activation energy (Ea) and the higher value of second rate constants k<sub>2</sub> in the presence of Fe (III) ion provide further support for Fe (III) ion enhancement of rate of oxidation.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Performances of Metal Oxides Supported in Monolith for Combined SO2/NOx removal from Flue Gas 2022-05-15T01:03:00-04:00 S. Kiman H. D. Mohammed N. B. Aliyu T. H. Usman D. B. Kayode <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>The emission of acid gases such SO<sub>2</sub> and NOx have detrimental effects on human beings and the environment hence, removing them from flue gas in a dry adsorption process is desirable. In this work, carbon monolith was synthesized with various metals </em><em>consisting of CeO<sub>2</sub>, Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5,</sub> and CuO by deposition precipitation, hydrothermal and wet pore volume impregnation synthesis techniques. The fixed bed adsorption activity test was carried out with flue gas production by coal burning. Furthermore, the breakthrough curves of the adsorbents were investigated where the adsorbent developed via hydrothermal technique with Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> metal oxide termed as HM-</em><em>Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub></em><em> /CM displayed higher adsorption capacity for</em><em> both SO<sub>2</sub> (</em><em>103.9 mg/g) </em><em>and NOx </em><em>and (106.6 mg/g)</em><em>. The Langmuir model can best describe the experimental data based on the correlation coefficient and separation factor results. </em><em>These results implied that the developed adsorbent can be potentially used in the industry for flue gas cleaning</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Design and Implementation of a Transistorized Bi-Controlled based Utility-Connected Battery Charger for Underdeveloped Nations 2022-05-15T13:11:46-04:00 Z. Jagun A. Okandeji C. Eya M. Olajide A. Ominike S. Ukagu <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This paper presents a transistorized bi-controlled based utility-connected battery charger to address the problem of erratic public power supply in underdeveloped nations. In this study, a utility battery charger was built by the integration of grid power supply, line frequency transformer, power electronic switches, alternating current-direct current bridge converter, regulator, and resistor-inductor-capacitor. The excess-voltage protection and battery monitoring were obtained by the bi-controlled technique. In contrast to other charging systems in underdeveloped nations, the proposed system is very simple, rugged, reliable and cheap to maintain due to simplicity and un-programmed nature of the system. The results showed that the proposed system is craggy and robust to resist voltage stress, highly reliable and relatively free from leakage currents due to the presence of a double controlled scheme using a common point of action and a line frequency transformer. In addition, the system can be used to charge batteries ranging from 50µA and above. The system can be utilized in communication companies, electric vehicles, drilling machines</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Evaluation of Best- Fit Probability Distribution Models for Prediction of Rainfall in Southern Nigeria 2022-05-15T13:56:00-04:00 A. I. Agbonaye O. C. Izinyon <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Suitable and adequate hydrological design data especially for flood design, are not readily available. When data is available, it is often outdated and irrelevant to current events especially in this era of global warming and climate change.</em><em> This study presents rainfall frequency analysis for some cities in Southern Nigeria using the annual maximum series of daily rainfall data for the stations.&nbsp; The objective of the study was to select the probability distribution model from among six commonly used probability distribution models namely: Generalized Extreme value distribution (GEV), Extreme value type I distribution (EVI), Generalized Pareto distribution (GPA), Pearson Type III (PIII), log Normal (LN) and Log Pearson Type III (LP111) distributions. These distributions were applied to the annual maximum series of daily rainfall at each station using the parameters of the distributions estimated by the method of moments. The best fit probability distribution model at each location was selected based on the results of seven goodness of fit tests values with a scoring and ranking scheme. Our results indicate that the best-fit distribution models at the study locations are PIII for Ibadan and Benin City; GEV for Onitsha, Enugu, Owerri, Calabar, and Port Harcourt; EVI and LN for Uyo; EVI for Akure and LP111 for Ikeja. This implies that GEV performed better by occupying 50% of the studied area, followed by EVI and PIII which performed by occupying 20% each. These best fit probability distribution models are recommended for use for necessary design at each location for flood hazard mitigation</em><em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Physical Properties of Four Varieties of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) Grain at Different Moisture Contents 2022-05-15T13:57:39-04:00 U. A. Kawuyo N. A. Aviara H. H. Mari B. M. Ahmed <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This study </em><em>was undertaken to determine </em><em>the physical properties of four varieties of sorghum grain </em><em>and investigate their v</em><em>ariation </em><em>with</em><em> moisture content. The properties </em><em>studied </em><em>include</em><em>:</em><em> axial dimensions, arithmetic mean and geometric mean diameter</em><em>s,</em><em> one thousand </em><em>grain</em><em> weight, particle density, bulk density, porosity</em> <em>and angle of repose. Each property was investigated at four moisture levels in the range of 3.5-18.25</em><em>%</em><em> d.b </em><em>(</em><em>brown variety</em><em>)</em><em>, 3.04-25.49</em><em>%</em><em> d.b </em><em>(</em><em>red variety</em><em>)</em><em>, 3.5-</em><em>20% </em><em>d.b</em><em> (</em><em>reddish brown</em><em> variety)</em><em> and 3.4-25.49</em><em>%</em><em> d.b </em><em>(</em><em>white variety</em><em>)</em><em>. The major, intermediate and minor dimensions all increased with increase in moisture content from 4.25-5.04mm, 4.10-4.76mm and 2.80-2.99mm for brown, 3.78-4.32mm, 2.96-3.43mm and 1.95-2.85mm for red, 4.25-5.21mm, 4.11-4.99mm, 3.61-3.77mm for reddish brown, 4.0-5.38mm, 3.20-4.99mm and 3.00-3.48mm for white variety. The arithmetic mean diameter ha</em><em>d</em><em> higher values for the four varieties than the geometric mean diameter. </em><em>O</em><em>ne thousand </em><em>grain </em><em>weight, </em><em>bulk density, </em><em>true density</em><em>,</em><em> porosity,</em> <em>and angle of repose </em><em>of all the varieties of sorghum studied, </em><em>increased linearly with increase in moisture content. Regression </em><em>models with high coefficients of determination</em><em> were used to express the relationship existing between the physical properties of the </em><em>grain</em><em>s </em><em>with</em><em> moisture content.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria