ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2644 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Geophysical Mapping of Aquifer Potential Zones Using Hydraulic Parameters in Lokoja and Environs, North-Central, Nigeria <p><em>This research is aimed at delineating the groundwater potential in Lokoja and environs using Dar Zarrouk parameters. The study area is part of the Basement Complex of South-western Nigeria and the Lokoja sub-basin of the middle Niger sedimentary basin, on area coverage of about 400km<sup>2</sup>. Thirty-five (35) vertical electric soundings (VES) using Schlumberger array method with the aid of ABEM Signal Averaging System (SAS) Terrameter were used for the data acquisition. The result of the interpretation shows four geo-electric layers. The resistivity soundings results revealed that about 4 curve types were identified in the study area namely AA, HA, A and H type with the lithologic layers varying from 3 to 4 and consisting of varying resistivity and thicknesses across each VES point. The geo-electric sections revealed that the major aquifer systems in the study area are weathered basement and weathered/fractured basement. The longitudinal conductance computed that range from 0.00904951 to 0.7814713 Ω<sup>-1</sup>indicates that the aquifers in the area have poor to moderate protective capacity whereas transverse resistance that range from 24.5841 to 7290.15Ω indicates very low groundwater development class. Hydraulic conductivity with a range of 0.36757M/day to 56.86754M/day and transmissivity values with a range of 4.4548 to 917.273M<sup>2</sup> /day indicate very low to moderate aquifer capable of sustaining moderate communities.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. A. Omali J. T. Arogundade Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 357 376 Determination of the physico-mechanical properties of three cultivars of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) grain <p>This study evaluated the physico-mechanical properties of IT89KD-288, Ife brown, and IT98K-573-1-1 varieties of cowpea. The cowpeas were obtained from local farmers in different parts of North Eastern Nigeria. The crop varieties were identified, sundried and cleaned before testing. The results for length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, arithmetic diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, mass, angle of repose, frictional angle, and bulk density were obtained at pre-determined moisture contents. Other results for IT98K-573-1-1 seed-chaff ratio, pod angle of internal friction, hardness, compressive force in the major, intermediate and minor axes, shear force in the major, intermediate and minor axes are 4.0±0.18, 44.4±1.0<sup>o</sup>, 1.46±0.0.99 kgf/mm<sup>2</sup>, 62.0±6.5 N, 38.3±1.6 N, 81.0±11.7 N, 61.0±4.74 N, 45.1±2.4 N, and 76.5±9.8 N respectively. There was significant difference between the physical and gravimetric properties of IT89KD-288, Ife brown, and IT98K-573-1-1 varieties of cowpea.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. O. Adanu S. A. Iya I. T. Yakubu H. U. Kabri Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 377 386 Assessing the Potentials of a Plant-Based Coagulant (Cyperus Esculentus Pulp) as alternative to Alum in Conventional Water Treatment Process <p>Globally, chemical coagulants such as alum are employed in water treatment during coagulation and flocculation process to improve drinking water quality. This process has an effect on human health. This research was carried out to assess the potentials of a plant-based coagulant (<em>Cyperus esculentus</em> Pulp) as substitute for alum or as coagulation aids. The water sample from river Gorao along Minna-Bida Road in Niger State were obtained in line with the standard laboratory procedures of the American Public Health Association (APHA) for the evaluation of the efficacy of the two coagulants (Plant-based Coagulant – <em>Cyperus esculentus</em>) and Aluminium Sulphate (Alum). Jar Test was done for some turbidity range. The results showed Turbidity and Colour removal efficiencies of 80.47% and 55.37% respectively. The Water Quality Index (WQI) shows that <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> produces good quality water (grade B) with WQI of 44.5. Recommendations arising from this study includes that further investigation should be carried out on other potential plant-based coagulants. Yellow variety of <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> should be investigated for its coagulation potentials and the use of <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> as coagulant is recommended as coagulant aid for reduction of turbidity in water.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> D. O. Akuboh M. Saidu A. S. Abdulkareem A. O. Busari Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 387 402 Tuning Rules for Fractional Order PID Controllers for Industrial Processes: A Conceptual Framework <p>This paper presents a brief review of Fractional Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative (FOPID) controllers. The prominent tuning procedures are presented and a conceptual framework for a new design of efficient FOPID controller is presented. The presented framework is based on the concept of output feedback, where a threshold is applied on the output response before feeding its feedback to the comparator. The threshold output was compared with the reference to make a proper decision on when a new controller gain should be selected. This way, control effort will be minimized and the system can settle as fast as possible. This paper presents a brief study of Fractional Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative (FOPID) controllers with their prominent tuning procedures and an introduction to a conceptualize idea for a new tuning technique that can be adopted for efficient tuning this type of controllers... The presented framework is based on the concept of output feedback, where a threshold is applied on the output response before feeding its feedback to the comparator. The idea was to compare the applied threshold output with the reference so as to make a proper decision on when a new controller gain should be selected.&nbsp; The result would be a minimized control effort and thus making the system to settle as fast as possible<em>.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> L. M. Isah A. Dan-Isa Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 403 412 A Resource Performance Model for Efficient Distribution of Resources to Operating System Services in Factored Operating System <p>Central processing will be composed of thousands of heterogeneous cores in the near future. The existing systems are difficult to scale, adapt or tackle the heterogeneous nature of the future multicore technology. This study developed a resource performance model for efficient distribution of resources to Operating System (OS) services. A Multi-Agent based method was used to design the architecture of the model while the Unified Modeling Language and flowchart were used in the detailed design of the proposed model. The model was simulated using Java 2 Enterprise Edition. In simulating the model, four (4) variables were used to determine the processor core capacity. The result of the simulation shows an efficient distribution of 5000 cores to four (4) OS services (servers) with each having 1250 fleet of servers. The percentage differences in the four of servers from the minimum are 0.11%, 0.09% and 0.04% respectively. The result shows that the distribution of processor cores to OS services is efficient since the differences in total performance function of the fleets of servers were very little. Therefore, to maximize the profit that comes with multicore systems, this efficient model is needed for processor cores distribution to OS service in a Factored Operating System.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> H. Mikailu I. Agaji B. V. Nachamada I. Gambo Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 413 426 Evaluation of Concrete Strength with Scarified Road Waste Material <p>The rising construction materials cost, dwindling materials availability and environmental challenges couple with the serious effect of construction waste have caused a serious concern in the construction industry. Most of the time, repairs of failed road pavements result in generation of Scarified Road Material Wastes (SRMW) and these are usually dumped by the roadsides thus causing environmental issues. These SRMWs could be useful if recycled in the production of concrete but their composition remains a question. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the suitability of SRMW in the production of concrete if used as fine aggregate. The fine aggregate content in nominal concrete mix was altered with SRMW that ranged between 0 – 40 % at an increment of 10%. Similarly, the SRMW was used as an additive in normal concrete mix. The casted concrete cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm size were tested for strength on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days periods. The experimental results showed that the use of scarified road waste material in lieu of fine aggregates in concrete mixes yielded some promising characteristics. The study revealed that it can be useful in the production of light weight concrete within an optimum range of 10% replacement.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> K. Mohammed Z. Mustapha Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 427 434 Effect of Bio-Cementation on the Strength Characteristics of Compacted Lateritic Soil Under Sterilized and Unsterilized Conditions <p>Naturally, not all soils readily meet specifications for engineering use. Therefore, improvement of soil engineering properties is one of the main concerns of a civil engineer. This paper evaluates the strength characteristics of a deficient lateritic soil classified as an A-4(3) using the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) classification system and CL using the Unified Soil Classification system (USCS) after improvement, using microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) technique. The soil sample was obtained from a site in Abagana, in Anambra State. It was treated with varying suspension densities up to 2.40 x 10<sup>9</sup> cells/ml of<em> Sporosarcina pasteurii</em> (S<em>. pasteurii)</em> a non-pathogenic microorganism cultured from the soil, under sterilized and unsterilized condition. The treated soil was compacted using the British Standard Light (Standard Proctor) compactive effort at the moulding water content range of -2 to +4% optimum moisture content (OMC). The compacted soil specimens were then permeated a cementitious reagent containing 20 g of Urea, 10 g of NH<sub>4</sub>Cl, 3 g of Nutrient broth, 2.8 g of CaCl<sub>2</sub> and 2.12 g of NaHCO<sub>3</sub> per litre of de-ionized water to aid the microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) process in three circles with 2/3<sup>rd</sup> pore volume. The Atterberg limits results showed a better improvement in the sterilized than the unsterilized specimens. Similarly, the unconfined compressive strength generally recorded higher results in the unsterilized specimens. Highest unconfined compressive strength (UCS) results were recorded at <em>S. pasteurii</em> suspension densities of 1.20 x 10<sup>9</sup> /ml and 1.80 x 10<sup>9</sup> /ml for the unsterilized and sterilized specimens respectively. Microstructural analysis using X-ray Diffraction performed on precipitates derived through the interaction of <em>S.</em> <em>pasteurii </em>and the cementitious reagent confirmed calcite as the dominant composition of the precipitate, analysis using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the MICP treated soil depicts presence of calcite precipitate and bio-cementation on the surface morphology of the treated soil grains. It was concluded that there are other species of microorganisms that augmented the MICP processes in the unsterilized specimens resulting to higher UCS values in the study. 1.20 x 10<sup>9</sup> /ml<em> S. pasteurii </em>suspension density was recommended as the optimal mix for the treatment of the unsterilized soil<em>.</em></p> E. W. Gadzama A. O. Eberemu T. S. Ijimdiya K. J. Osinubi Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 435 452 Implementation of Numerical Integration Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Microcontrollers: A Review <p>Majority of numerical integration algorithms are written in software and require a long time to initialize and generate results. There is a gradual shift from software-based designs to (Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)-based designs because they are versatile devices that are increasingly being used as real-time hardware targets in industries. FPGAs are utilized in real-time measurement and control, signal processing, and digital communication, among other applications, because they are inexpensive real-time reconfigurable devices. Because of the high increase in the volume of data used in designs and the large data dependencies in complex computations, researchers are motivated to highlight the need for a shift from the software based implementation of numerical integration to hardware-based FPGAs implementations that are much quicker, more efficient, and more reliable. In this paper, different numerical integration implementations are studied, their strategies discussed, findings assessed and recommendations drawn to enable the suggestion of a better way of improving them. A tabular summary of the review is provided to enhance the understanding of the findings of the review and recommendations for each of the implementations. Based on the review, it can be deduced that FPGAs implementations are faster than software based implementations in C++ and Matlab. It is also evident from the review that architectural designs like pipelining and parallelism when employed on FPGAs greatly improve the throughput of designs and models which significantly reduce data dependencies. It is recommended that FPGA implementation should be employed in the development of numerical integration algorithms due to their low cost, power consumption, small size, and high speed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Adamu A. I. Audu C. U. Ngene Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 453 468 Traditional Sensor-Based and Computer Vision-Based Fire Detection Systems: A Review <p>Fire emergency is one of the dominant disasters which is threatening human society, infrastructure, and the environment in the world. Fire disaster can lead to a great number of human casualties, loss of vast natural resources and serious infrastructural damage. To minimize these such catastrophic menace, protect and save human lives and infrastructure, substantial research efforts have been devoted to developing fire detection systems using different approaches. This paper discusses fire detection systems and summarizes the state-of–the-art achievements. A total number of 60 publications related to fire detection methods are extracted from IEEE and Google Scholar database and analysed. Different fire detection methods are reviewed, and their merits and shortcomings are highlighted. The literature review presented in this paper illustrates the advantages of computer vision-based fire detection approaches over the traditional sensor-based approaches which are characterised by limited detection range, transport delay, and high false alarm. In addition, it shows that the high hardware requirement and computational complexity remain the key drawbacks of the computer vision-based methods and most of the research works made no attempt to implement such methods on embedded hardware platform such as FPGA. Further research efforts are required to design, develop, and implement computer vision-based systems for fire detection on embedded hardware targets in an efficient and computationally less intensive manner.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Hassan A. I. Audu Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 469 492 Framework for Investigating Contractor Selection Decision Support Systems’ (CS-DSS) Acceptance by Public Procurement Personnel <p>Laboratory-based designs of contractor selection decision support systems (CS-DSSs) are common in construction management research. However, target end-users like the public procurement entities do not usually make use of these ubiquitous technologies in practice, in spite of their enormous potentials. The absence of reliable framework for investigating technology adoption in public procurement has continued to impede the possibilities of investigating the acceptance of such technologies. The present study aims at developing a framework for investigating CS-DSS acceptance for the smallest decision making unit in public procurement. The structure of a novel theoretical techno-psychological framework for investigating CS-DSS acceptance in Nigerian public procurement is presented in this paper through the lens of an extended innovation diffusion theory - technology acceptance model (IDT-TAM). From an individual level remit (micro-level), a strategic review of literature was followed by a Delphi survey of carefully selected 18-number procurement experts in Nigeria. The study shows that the prescriptions of CS-DSSs by researchers can be supported by a foresight on the end-user behavioral intension to use such technologies. Operationalization of the framework with empirical data can model the acceptance behavior of procurement personnel on CS-DSSs before they are adopted at the organizational or strategic level for enhanced contractor selection in public procurement. The emerging framework is recommended for designers of CS-DSS for articulating the antecedent behavior of public procurement personnel.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> D. E. Salla Y. G. Musa-Haddary B. A. Kolo Y. J. Gandu Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 493 516 Analytical Determination of Queueing System Performance for Sustainable Economic Development <p>The increase in land travel demand over the years which poses a challenge in managing the high influx of people and goods into urban centres and cities such as Abuja, Calabar, Lagos, Kano, and Kaduna, Nigeria has led to queues in security check points. This study determines a mathematical model for analysing queueing system performance measures using the data obtained from Kugbo check-point, Abuja Keffi Highway. The service time data and system settings are used to choose the M/M/1 queueing mathematical model for a single server queueing system. According to the study, an average queue includes 3751 cars and takes 1 hour and 11 minutes to complete. An hourly queueing graph showed that on the busiest days, queue length and waiting time rose. Based on the busiest days (Mondays), an hourly queueing graph revealed that customer queueing length and waiting time is at its highest in the morning hours from 7am to 11am, and then from 4pm to 7pm. For effective and economical system management, this length of time spent on queue should be taken into account, also artificial intelligent simulation models like Netsim, SimEvent in MATLAB models are recommended for comparative studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. B. Anyin A. A. Etika Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 517 526 Modelling Combustion Characteristics of some selected Nigerian Coal Samples <p>Coal is one of the most abundant fossil fuel which could be utilized for electricity production using different techniques. The pulverization technique is considered in this study which involves coal combustion to release heat which can be utilised to generate steam. Grinding and drying are prior combustion processes that increases rate of reaction during combustion. This study determines the thermodynamics characteristics of coal combustion using the pulverization technique for Five Nigerian coal samples (Odagbo, Owupka, Ezimo, Amansiodo and Inyi Coal). A process based model was developed using ASPEN PLUS for a coal power plant. The mass balance and energy balance equations for the plant components was used. Emission from coal combustion was determined at different equivalence ratios of 1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. It was observed that excess air supplied reduces emissions and there is a trade-off of combustion temperature. Also, the amount of ash released is independent of the equivalence ratio. From results obtained, at stoichiometry, Owupka coal sample has the highest combustion temperature of 2005ºC and the least ash production of 1.3kg/s while Inyi coal has the least combustion temperature of 1779ºC and the highest ash production of 18.8kg/s. Therefore, Owupka coal is recommended for use as it has the highest efficiency when used in combustion. Also, to improve the efficiency of Inyi coal sample, it is recommended to be mixed with high efficiency coals like Owupka.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. V. Mshelia Y. S. Sanusi Y. Ibrahim H. A. Dandajeh Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 527 540 Extraction and Geo-Referencing Suburban Locations of Terroristic Attacks from Textual Data of Maiduguri Insurgency <p>There are no precise</p> S. S. Garba Copyright (c) 2022 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 18 3 541 554