ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2490 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Crop Coefficient of Tomato under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch Practices at Kano River Irrigation Project, Nigeria <p><em>This work determined the effects of deficit irrigation and mulching practices on crop coefficient (Kc) of tomato in the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Kadawa, Kano, Nigeria. Experiments comprised of four levels of water application depths (40, 60, 80, and 100% of weekly reference evapotranspiration) and four levels of mulching (No-Mulch (NM), Rice-Straw-Mulch (RSM), Wood-Shaving-Mulch (WSM) and White-Polyethylene-Mulch (WPM)) was conducted to examine changes in Kc value. The mean Kc values (early, developmental, mid and late stages) of fully irrigated treatments were 0.70, 0.81, 1.07 and 0.78; 0.64, 0.76, 0.99 and 0.71; 0.60, 0.73, 0.94 and 0.69; and 0.53, 0.66, 0.86 and 0.62 for NM, RSM, WSM and WPM respectively while that of deficit irrigation ranged from 0.17 to 1.13 across the treatments, noting that the highest Kc was observed under NM treatments. Statistical analysis reveals that the effect of various levels of irrigation and mulching practices on Kc of tomato was highly significant at P<0.05 level of significance with a high mean value of 1.13 obtained at I100 and NM respectively. It was concluded to encourage tomato farmers in KRIP to adopt the use of their rice straw for mulching cum deficit irrigation (20%) towards conserving irrigation water for sustainability. Also, results obtained from this study can be used as a guide to farmers in irrigating tomato crop and to engineers in the design of irrigation systems.</em></p> M. D. Zakari I. Audu H. E. Igbadun N. M. Nasidi A. Ibrahim A. Shitu Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 823 836 Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emission from a Solar / Gas Powered Absorption Air Conditioning System in Zaria <p><em>Electrically powered vapour compression chillers consume high power and make use of synthetic refrigerants which when released have negative effect on the environment. In this study, the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>) emission from an absorption air conditioning system were evaluated. The experimental scale absorption air conditioning system has its thermal energy requirement supplied by the solar collector system and liquefied petroleum gas. The air conditioning system was operated for ten experimental days, in both solar and gas heating modes. Daily power consumption by the system was measured. The daily CO</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>&nbsp;emitted by the system was evaluated using the daily gas consumption. These were compared to electric power consumption and GWP from conventional chillers of varying energy efficiency ratio (EER). Results showed that the absorption cooling system has reduced power consumption in the range of 31.5% to 64.2% as compared to conventional vapour compression chiller of varying EER. Also, CO</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>&nbsp;emission was seen to have been reduced. This reduction was within the range of 13.3% to 43.2% when compared to that from conventional vapour compression chiller of low to average EER.</em></p> T. O. Ahmadu Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 837 846 A New Formula for Groundwater Recharge Estimation in Yola, Nigeria <p><em>In this paper,relationship between rainfall and groundwater recharge estimation was evaluated. A standard numerical formula that relates rainfall to groundwater recharge estimation was proposed with the aim of providing error-free groundwater estimate from rainfall. Rainfalls measured in a selected location in Yola, Nigeria and standard formula were used to fix the constants (A,B and c) in the new numerical formula using Microsoft Excel Solver. The constants were used to establish new numerical formula. The new numerical formula was used to estimate groundwater recharge from the rainfall. The accuracy of the new numerical formula was evaluated statistically using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), relative error; the degree of accuracy, numerical reliability, Model of Selection Criterion (MSC) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and compared with the previous formulae in use for field groundwater recharge estimation with Uttar Pradesh (UP) as the reference value of groundwater recharge.</em></p> <p><em>The study revealed that groundwater recharge estimated using the formula </em><em>was similar to groundwater recharge estimated using standard formulae (UP, Modified Chaturvedi, Kumar and Seethapathi and Rao). In all cases there were significant differences between the groundwater recharge estimated using all the formulae. The new formula provided the lowest relative error of 0.887%, the highest MSC of 4.911; the degree of accuracy of 99.113 % and the lowest AIC of 436.306. &nbsp;The accuracy of the formulae was in the order of new formula greater than Chaturvedi formula greater than Kumar and Seethapathi formula greater than Rao formula. It was concluded that modelling of groundwater recharge using the numerical formula is a promising tool for estimating groundwater recharge with minimum error in water resources management.</em></p> A. B. Umaru S. Lukman I. A. Oke B. G. Umara Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 847 858 Physico-Chemical Properties of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) and their effects on the Qualities of Biodiesel <p><em>This study investigated the effects of physico-chemical properties of Yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) on quality of biodiesel. The seeds were processed and extraction of oil was carried out using solvent extraction method. Biodiesel was produced from the extracted oil using trans esterification process. Physical and chemical properties of Thevetia peruviana biodiesel were determined using the ASTM standard test procedures. Results showed that the biodiesel contained little sulphur (3.0 mg/kg) and exhibited a high cetane number of 55 that exceeded the standard limit of 47 and 51 prescribed for EN 14214 and EN 590 respectively, which is a good indication of fuel’s ignition and combustion quality. Kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel at 40°C was 4.81 mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>/s, which was within the range specified by EN 14214. The density at 15°C was found to be 0.89g/cm</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>&nbsp;which was well within the range specified by EN 14214. 0.16 mg/g of acid level was obtained for the bio-diesel, which conformed to the standard set by &nbsp;Calorific value of the biodiesel produced from Yellow oleander seed oil was obtained as</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>40.42 kJ/g which indicated good fuel properties such as density, ignition quality, viscosity, cetane number, heating value and flash point. Carbon residue of the biodiesel was 0.14 mass %. Quality of the biodiesel produced conform to biodiesel and petroleum diesel standards of EN14214 and EN590 respectively.</em></p> A. R. Nasirudeen D. Lasisi L. A. Balogun A. J. Eebo F. O. Ogunsola A. J. Adesope S. O. Ogundare F. A. Ola Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 859 866 Water Quality Analysis of some Selected Hand-Dug Wells in Burutu Community, Delta State <p><em>This study investigated the bacteriological and physico-chemical properties of water in selected hand-dug wells in Burutu community, Delta state and compared it with </em><em>W</em><em>orld Health Organisation (WHO) Standard. Water samples from wells in twelve different locations were selected and subjected to filtration prior to chemical analysis. The methods of analyses were determined according to the procedure in APHA. Results obtained show that some of the parameters analyzed were within WHO (2006) guidelines for drinking while others exceeded the threshold. In relation to bacteriological contamination, the result revealed that all the sampled wells were contaminated with total and faecal coliform organisms as they exceeded WHO standard. The sampled wells had a mean of total coliform 175.16</em><em>±</em><em>155.73mpn from twelve samples with a range of 67 to 576 mpn. Samples across the wells varied in the range of 67, 86.00, 70 mpn for (Ambar), 110, 360, 294 mpn for (Chicoco), 112, 111, 114mpn for (Low beach) and 102, 576 and 100 mpn for (Okorodudu) quarters respectively. It also shows that none of the wells are of quality in terms of portability for drinking. However, they can be used for other domestic activities like washing of clothes and bathing.</em></p> Obiajulu Peretomode Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 867 877 Health Risks Associated with Consumption of Vegetables Grown using Domestic Wastewater in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria <p><em>Most vegetables consumed in the cities of developing countries are grown using wastewater discharged through township drainage network. This paper, therefore, investigates the risk involved in the consumption of such vegetables. The human daily intake rate (DIR) and Health Risk Index (HRI) of heavy metals were calculated using established formulae and the values of DIR ranged from 0.10 mg/kg/day to 0.71 mg/kg/day in wastewater plots in dry season for adults and 0.10 mg/kg/day to 0.14 mg/kg/day for children. Health risk index (HRI) values ranges from 0.40 mg/kg/day to 0.75 mg/kg/day in wastewater plots for adults in dry season and 0.20 mg/kg/day to 0.95 mg/kg/day for children. In wet season wastewater plots, the HRI ranges from 0.40 mg/kg/day to 0.95 mg/kg/day for children. The values of Hazard index (HI) ranged between 1.00 mg/kg/day and 1.21 mg/kg/day for all the seasons. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the wet and dry season values for all the parameters assessed. Finally, uptake of heavy metals from the soil by all the vegetable crops under investigation was established. Therefore proper monitoring needs to be carried out to regulate consumption of vegetables produced from the experimental sites as continuous application of the industrial wastewater may lead to further accumulation of these heavy metals.</em></p> P. A. Adeoye Z. Saidu A. I. Kuti I. Jibril B. A. Adabembe Copyright (c) 2019 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 15 4 878 888