ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2644 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Effects of Differently Treated Cassava Flours Blended with Bambara Groundnut Flour on the Bread Making Potential of Two Nigerian Wheat Cultivars <p>Studies involving the use of composite flour for baked goods are unending for reasons such as high quest for functional foods, unsustainable wheat import and nutritional enhancement of baked goods. In this study, cassava flour (CF) was differently treated: roasted (Cr), fermented (Cf), oven dried (Co) and sundried (Cs) before separately blended with flours from de-braned, hammer milled Nigerian wheat varieties, Norman (Wn) and Atilla (Wa) in the ratio of 75:25. The blends (8) were used to bake breads. Refined commercial wheat flour bread was the control. The breads and the flour blends were evaluated for physical, chemical and sensory qualities using standard procedures. Results revealed that the blends had higher ash (0.57-1.31%) and carbohydrate (76.69-81.03%), lower moisture (8.27-10.30%), protein (6.91-10.10%) and crude fat (1.28-2.45%) and desirable higher water and oil absorption capacities (0.85-1.30mg/g) and (1.16-1.40g/g) respectively. There were improvements in the swelling power (6.91-10.10g/g) and solubility (4.00-7.00%) due to CF addition. The ash, protein, and fibre of the treated breads were higher, while the carbohydrate and fat were lower than in the wheat bread. Specific loaf volume (SLV) of wheat bread (2.58ml/g) and bread with oven dried CF (2.61ml/g) were higher; others had lower SLV not significantly different from each other (p&gt;0.05). There were significant increase(p&lt;0.5) in the mineral contents of the composite bread, more in the bread with sun and oven dried CF. The least amounts were recorded in the breads containing fermented CF for obvious reasons. As for wheat flour and the flour blends, they varied respectively: K 84.04-140.56, Ca 20.29-38.79, Mg 17 51-32.32, Fe 2.26-4.91 and Zn 1.40-2.59 (mg/100g) greater in the blends. As for the breads, significant variations were K 157.36-296.29, Ca 22.61-60.94, Mg 32.78-70.54, Fe 2.98-7.47, and Zn 1.56-7.47 (mg/100g) lower in wheat bread and bread containing fermented CF. Wheat bread had superior sensory attributes followed by bread with oven-dried CF but the bread with fermented CF had the poorest sensory ranking. The composite bread had better nutritive value and poorer sensory properties, demanding the use of flavour enhancing agents in order to mask the unpleasant fermented taste and aroma. Addition of dry heat treated CF to wheat flour (25:75) produced bread with overall quality comparable to wheat bread.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> G. I. Agbara B. Babagana Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 555 574 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Pathloss Prediction Model for LTE Network for Microcells in an Urban Environment <p>One of the challenges faced by telecommunication service providers is capacity. The capacity of a cell depends on the model used in planning the cell during deployment stage. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Pathloss Prediction model for Long Term Evolution (LTE) network for microcells in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria. Received signal strength data collected with respect to distance, mobile station antenna height and base station antenna height was used to create a data base with pathloss estimated from the measured data. A feature variable consisting of&nbsp; &nbsp;of measurement data collected was used to train a 4-32-1 multilevel perceptron artificial neural network with pathloss as the label using python language on Scientific python development environment interface (SPYDER).&nbsp; The result of the &nbsp;test data shows that artificial neural network is suitable for predicting pathloss in Benin City. This is as a result of root mean square error (RMSE) values and mean absolute error values of &nbsp;and 0.42 &nbsp;obtained respectively which are less than the &nbsp;error value allowed for network planning. It is recommended that the result of the study be adopted in designing or expanding LTE network capacity in the areas studied in this work.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. L. Omoze J. O. Emagbetere Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 575 586 Influences of pH and Temperature on the Anaerobic Fermentation of Groundnut Shell and Cow Dung for Biogas Production <p>The increasing demand, high cost and health implications of using energy derived from hydrocarbon compound have necessitated the continuous search for alternative sources of energy. Groundnut shell (GS) and Cow dung (CD) as renewable source of energy supply have been proven to be very efficient. This study investigated the influences of operating parameters in anaerobic fermentation of GS and CD in the laboratory scale using the simple locally fabricated digesters labeled A-E of 4,000cm<sup>3</sup> working volume. The temperatures were recorded one time daily using a thermometer that was fitted to the digester. The digesters were fed on a batch basis with the slurry of different mix ratio and operated at ambient temperature (28-40°C) for 30days. Digester A being the control containing 100% of CD have pH of 7.00 and 7.20 before and after digestion respectively. This shows that the pH values of cow dung was neutral before digestion and slightly alkaline after digestion while digester E containing 100% of groundnut shell also a control have pH of 7.10 and 7.20 respectively before and after digestion. The temperatures in the five digesters fluctuated optimally between 28°C and 40°C which conforms to the mesophilic range. Most microorganisms grow best under neutral pH conditions, since other pH values may adversely affect metabolism by altering the chemical equilibrium of enzymatic reactions, or by actually destroying the enzymes.&nbsp; Low pH can cause the chain of biological reactions in fermentation to cease<em>.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. Mamman M. Saidu A. Busari S. Sadiku Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 587 596 Simulation Analysis of Benchmark Axial Velocity After Sudden Expansion using Computational Fluid Dynamics <p>Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- ANASYS 2020R1 was used for the analysis of food and drug administration (FDA) benchmark study for biomedical flow transition. An idealized medical device is presented within this study and the CFD predictions of pressure and velocity are compared against experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. The fluid flow transition considered for Reynold numbers(s) 500, 2000, and 6500 with turbulent fluid flow models- laminar, k-omega, k-omega SST and k-epsilon based on throat Reynolds number Re<sub>th</sub>. 500, 2000 and 6500. Mesh independence K-omega SST model used at 0.0008, 0.0004 and 0.0002 element sizes showed good matched velocity of 5.9m/sec. This converged at 0.0002, which is 2% of total pressure drop. Axial velocity at centreline for Re<sub>th</sub> 500, 2000 and 6500 at line X =0, showed maximum difference of 77.4% velocity centerline at 0.08m and 19% wall pressure at -0.09m sudden expansion laminar region of Re = 500. Besides, 65.6% and 17.2% obtained at transition Re =2000, showed good agreement between CFD simulations and experimental measurements, at turbulent region Re = 6500, all models were in good agreement at 49.6% velocity centerline and 8.10% pressure drop in laminar region. Also, downstream of the simulation of Re<sub>th</sub> =6500, other models disappeared which demonstrated K-epsilon model is best at higher Reynolds region. The result revealed negligible pressure gradient at the center line of the wall pressure, and dropped at the normalization point of the experimental pressure data range of 0 to -120n/m<sup>2</sup> and balanced at the throat Reynolds number of Re<sub>th</sub> = 500.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> T. O. Onah O. M. Egwuagu R. E. Ozioko S. Chukwujindu A. M. Nwankwo I. A. Nnaji C. C. Aka Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 597 610 Composition and Biochemical Methane Potential from Different Typha Components <p>Invasive species are recognized as one of the main causes of erosion of global biodiversity which represent one of the major environmental challenges of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. Typha is among the fifth most invasive species in West Africa, Nigeria included. Presently in Hadejia Valley Wetlands of Nigeria, typha grass has been perceived as a threat to the surrounding communities. Although some research efforts have shown it can be used as a resource material for renewable energy or animal feed, its use has not yet become a commercial practice. This study investigates compositional characteristic using in vitro digestibility and biogas production from different Typha botanical fractions using anaerobic digestion inoculated with rumen microorganisms. Treatments considered were single plant components as well as combinations. The results show that spike (seed) had the highest soluble crude protein and the leaves had the highest energy content (cellulose and hemicellulose). The leaf and stem at full maturity had a lignin content of 18-20%. Rhizome and stem contained higher ash content while root had greater total volatile solid. The spike yielded the most biogas (457 ml/g) at 60 days retention period. The root component yielded the least gas (259 ml/g) over the same period. The seed pod produced the most methane gas per weight of VS (255 ml/gVS). Blending leaf and stem or root and rhizome increased the volume of biogas generated (399 ml/g and 442 ml/g respectively) while a combination of all components of the plant decreased the volume of gas (388 ml/g – 289 ml/g). The combination of the root and the rhizome produced a higher volume of methane (254 ml/g) than either component by itself (root with 160 ml/g while rhizome 226 ml/g). Different typha components has different compositional characteristic which influence the activity of anaerobic microorganism and affect the volume and quality of biogas produced. Rumen microorganisms digest typha component and spike gives the highest gas volume per grams of typha biomass while rood produce the least volume. Combination of different typha component affect the volume of gas generation defending of which component of plants were mixed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> N. A. Sale R. A. Kohn A. Sale U. S. Mohammed I. B. Dalha Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 611 622 Impact of Accelerated Carbonation Curing (ACC) on the Properties of Guinea Corn Husk Ash Blended Concrete <p>There are different methods of curing concrete. These include immersion in water, sprinkling of the concrete samples, curing with sand or sawdust and open-air curing method. However, research on the use of Accelerated Carbonation Curing (ACC) method for curing concrete is very scanty. Therefore, this study concentrates on determining the impact of ACC on the properties of Guinea Corn Husk Ash (GCHA) Blended Concrete. Materials such as Portland Limestone Cement, Guinea Corn Husk Ash (GCHA), sand, and granite dust were tested for fineness, coarseness, specific gravity before they were used for producing the concrete. Characterizations, such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to investigate the properties of the GCHA. The batched concrete was then cured using the ACC and Water Curing (WC) methods. Mix ratios of 0%, 5%, and 10% GCHA were utilized in obtaining the highest compressive strength. Compressive strength for 0%, 5%, 10% incorporation of GCHA in concrete for both ACC and WC methods of curing at 56th day were found to be 23.3 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and 24.5 N/mm<sup>2</sup>; 19.1 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and 21.7 N/mm<sup>2</sup>; 11.1 N/mm<sup>2 </sup>and 11.8 N/mm<sup>2 </sup>respectively. The highest sorptivity values were obtained at 10% replacement of cement with GCHA for both ACC and WC cured samples. However, the Sorptivity values decreased as the curing age increases both for ACC and WC cured concrete. This demonstrates that both methods produced durable concrete.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. O. Odeyemi M. S. Sholagberu R. Abdulwahab A. A. Adedeji Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 623 642 Fabrication of Probe Trap for Monitoring Cowpea Weevil Infesting Stored Cowpea <p>Insect probe traps are effective in detecting grain insects but neglected because it is time consuming and precise method of interpreting the catch have not been adequately specified. Interestingly, this is not readily available in Nigeria and where available, it is expensive due to foreign exchange rates. Therefore, there is need for a locally available and more acceptable insect probe trap for integrated pest management practice during postharvest handling of cowpea. Locally sourced materials were used to fabricate a probe trap for monitoring <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting stored cowpea. The fabricated probe trap was evaluated together with a standard probe trap. Treatments were repeated three times, and also tried in three different insect densities (3, 7 and 15 insects per kg respectively) artificially infested into 10 kg cowpea grains contained in plastic storage buckets, and traps were inspected after every 24 hours for five days. The probe trap was also evaluated in 100 kg cowpea sample contained in sack bag to determine the effect of grain volume on the performance of the trap. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using Student Newman Keuls test (SNK) at 5 % confidence level. The result of total trap catches revealed that the fabricated traps’ mean catch (36.6) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than the standard probe trap which had lower trap catch mean (12.7) value. Thresholds for management decisions were also determined and the fabricated trap was found to be economically profitable (N 936.75 cheaper); hence, objectives of the study were achieved. &nbsp;It is recommended for cowpea handlers in Nigeria to use the fabricated insect probe trap because it is effective in monitoring beetles, it is less expensive and also locally available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> D. A. Uzoma D. R. Awotunde A. I. Auwalu K. A. Abba J. B. Lucius B. T. Magaji A. M. Oparaeke Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 643 658 Reduction of Colour from Indigo Dye-Rich Wastewater by Electro-Coagulation using Iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) Electrodes <p>Indigo dyes are important substances in the Adire Textile industry which are not environmentally friendly because they produce colored effluent. This study evaluated the performance of a batch-scale electro-coagulation (EC) technique for Indigo dye-rich wastewater treatment. A pilot-scale EC unit using Iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) electrodes, having a mono-polar parallel arrangement with a constant inter-electrode distance of 10 mm was developed. The Fe anode and Al cathode had effective areas of 16.50 and 22.75 cm<sup>2</sup> respectively. The impact of pH, Sodium Chloride (NaCl), and electrolysis time on EC performance was assessed by calculating the color reduction. A three-factor three-level Box Benkhen Design with three center points was used to generate fifteen experimental runs using NaCl, pH, and electrolysis time as independent variables and color removal efficiency as the response variable. A regression analysis was performed after the results of the experimental data were fitted to a full quadratic model resulting in the generation of regression coefficients. The model was inversely transformed and modified to make it significant. The results show that the optimum pH and NaCl concentration were 3 and 4 g/l respectively with electrolysis time of 35 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, the percentage of colour removal was 32.78% with a predicted value of 80%. An R<sup>2</sup> value of 83.45% was obtained and ANOVA verified that the accuracy of the proposed polynomial model is acceptable. Therefore, it is noteworthy that an EC technique could be used in reducing color from Indigo Dye-rich wastewater in textile industry.</p> A. A. Badejo F. C. Nkeshita O. J. Adelasoye O. P. Adeyanju Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 659 668 Optimal Load Scheduling of Power Plants in a Grid Considering the Plant’s Capacity and Line Losses <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In a grid or part of a grid operated by a single service provider with various types of power plants, the total load demand on the grid can be serviced by the plants’ outputs in such a way that a minimum cost of energy is spent to generate this total demanded load thereby maximizing profit for the service providers without placing exorbitant tariff on customers. This paper considered how this can be archived in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria (as a case study). We assumed that the power generated by the plants in the region is also consumed by the region. Using the Lagrnge multiplier optimization method in our analysis and for a total power demand/generation of , a total of &nbsp;of fuel will be burnt. But with the system of running cost minimization developed in this paper, only about &nbsp;of fuel was burnt in generating that same quantity of power demanded resulting in a net savings of . This is equivalent to ; with energy sold at ₦48/kWh in Nigeria, a total of ninety-eight thousand, seven hundred and thirty-six Naira (₦98,736.00) only will be saved each hour resulting in a net savings of eight hundred and sixty-four million, nine hundred and twenty-seven thousand, three hundred and sixty naira (₦864,927,360.00) only per annum. This is, therefore, recommended for implementation in running Nigeria’s power system<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. I. Obi O. Oputa E. A. Amako Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 669 682 Simulation and Experimental Study of Tensile Strength of Ukam Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites using ANSYS <p>Polymers are commonly used in different applications even though it causes environmental problems. Natural fibre reinforced composites can be used as substitute for the synthetic fibre composites because of their biodegradable properties which will be a key to solving environmental problems although, the strength of natural fibres is not as high as glass fibres, their specific properties are comparable. The hand lay–up method of fabrication was employed in preparing the composite. This study investigates the tensile strength of the composite using experimental and numerical method. The test specimen of natural composite was fabricated using ASTM standard and the tensile strength of the composite determined using Hounsfield Tensometer. A 3D Finite Element (FE) model was created to simulate tensile strength in ANSYS 18. Alkali treated samples exhibited the highest increase in tensile strength at all fibre loadings. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and percentage elongation also increased with increase in fibre loading for all treatments. The experimental values of tensile strength at 25 % were in agreement with the FEM tensile strength using ANSYS.</p> G. E. Okpanachi A. S. Hassan El – M. A. Ahmed S. U. Hussein F. Alapa Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 683 692 Application of Image Analysis in Food Grain Quality Inspection and Evaluation During Bulk Storage <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>With increased expectations for high quality food products and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of moisture, purity, germination and pathogen free food products and grains during bulk storage continues to grow. This paper reviews the application of image analysis in food grain quality inspection and discusses the potential of the technology for application in grain quality monitoring and evaluation during bulk storage. Image analysis procedure and physical properties of the grain bulk were also discussed. Image analysis is an automated alternative to manual inspection with less processing time and more accurate results. Human inspection has been found wanting due the bias judgment and results. Image analysis of food grains during bulk storage can only get better with its diverse applications in varietal identification, distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing, detection of insects and foreign bodies within the grain bulk and the detection of hot spot in the bin to mention a few. In Nigeria, image analysis will be a great tool in terms of grain quality preservation in National Grain Reserves (NGRs), providing seeds for farmers for the next planting season and reviving the grain reserves in Nigeria to boost gainful employment of citizens. An automated grain reserves using image analysis is possible in Nigeria only if appropriate government policies and funding can throw its full weight behind the innovation<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> N. A. Aviara A. A. Adesanya I. J. Iyilade E. O. Olorunsola S. K. Oyeniyi Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 693 706 Moisture and Temperature Influence on Thermal Properties of Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) Seed Accessions <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The thermal properties of three winged bean seed accessions (Entry 4 Tropical <em>Psophocarpus tetragonolobus</em> (TPT) 6, Entry II Tropical <em>Psophocarpus tetragonolobus</em> (TPT) 30, and Entry 12 Tropical <em>Psophocarpus tetragonolobus</em> (TPT) 32) at&nbsp;5,&nbsp;10, 15, 20, and 25% moisture contents and 30, 40, and 50 ᵒC temperatures were determined with the KD2 Pro Thermal Analyzer. The results showed that the thermal properties of the seed accessions were moisture-temperature dependent. Entry II TPT 30 had the highest specific heat capacity (1.37-2.59<sup>-1</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>), while Entry 4 TPT 6 had the highest thermal conductivity (0.17-0.60 W.m<sup>-1</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>) and thermal diffusivity (0.19-0.77 x 10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>.s<sup>-1</sup>) as the temperature and moisture increased. A second-order polynomial model described the relationship between the moisture, temperature, and the three thermal properties studied. Respective high correlation coefficients (<em>R</em><sup>2</sup> ≥ 0.9126, 0.9872, and 0.9801 for Entry 4 TPT 6, Entry II TPT 30, and Entry 12 TPT 32 accessions, respectively) indicated their ability to simulate these parameters within the moisture-temperature domain studied. The winged bean seeds' thermal properties will be used to guide design decisions for the creation of agricultural machinery, thermal processes, and equipment required for storage, drying, heating, and cooling<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> K. O. Oriola J. B. Hussein M. O. Oke R. D. Isiaka Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 707 720 Influence of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Hardness, Tensile Strength and Microstructures of Aluminum 6061 Alloy Weldments <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In this work, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was used for joining aluminum 6061 alloy because it offers low heat input to the weld joints and the ability to remove any refractory oxides such as Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> through a process known as the cathodic cleaning effect. This research was carried out to evaluate the level of improvement in the tensile strength and the hardness of aluminum 6061 alloy welds, using a tungsten inert gas welding approach. Aluminum 6061 alloy in form of a round bar of length 100 mm and 8 mm in diameter was first machined to the standard tensile testing specimen according to the American society for testing and materials (ASTM) using a lathe machine. It was then butt welded along the center of the bar using tungsten inert gas welding process with a constant welding current of 18 Amperes and gas flow rate of 15 liter/min. the same process was repeated for both the hardness and microstructure specimens followed by butt welding along the center of the specimen. The welded samples were then subjected to the hardness and tensile testing using Rockwell hardness testing and Hounsfield tensile testing machine respectively. The results showed that the welded metal and the heat-affected zone possessed the highest hardness value of 84.2 HRB and 71.9 HRB respectively as compared with the parent metal with a hardness value of 66.8 HRB. Also, the tensile strength of the welded specimens is 300.35 N/mm² which is relatively lower than that of the base material with a tensile strength of 348.67 N/mm². Additionally, the results of the microstructural examination reveal the presence of trace aluminum oxides within the matrix of the welded structure which indicates the slight increase observed in the hardness of the welded sample as compare to that of the base material. Therefore, the hardness and tensile strength for the welded sample are close to the base metal indicating that welding of aluminum and its alloys using the TIG welding process gives welds of adequate mechanical properties<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. A. Musa M. A. Mohammed E. T. Dauda Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 721 728 Evaluation of pyrolyzed oil palm frond in the adsorption of residual phenolic compounds in facultatively treated palm oil mill effluent <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Aerobic digestion is the final stage of biological treatment systems employed for treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The presence of phenolic compounds in POME inhibits the performance of aerobic microbes. To mitigate the inhibitory effect, removing phenolic compounds at the early stage of aerobic treatment could be a workable solution. In this study, the performance of biochar from oil palm frond (OPF-BC) prepared using steam pyrolysis was investigated for the efficient removal of phenolic compounds. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium tests were performed to assess the time required to reach adsorption equilibrium and uptake capacity for phenol, catechol and gallic acid spiked in water and facultatively treated POME. Adsorption of the phenols onto OPF-BC attained equilibrium within 2 h irrespective of the water matrix. In the water maximum adsorption capacities of 38.7, 28.2 and 26.2 mg/g were obtained for phenol, catechol, and gallic acid, respectively. The presence of background organic matter in facultatively treated POME reduced the adsorption capacities by 3-folds. The simplified equivalent background model estimated dosage to achieve 80% removal ranged between 14.4 and 18.8 g/L. The OPF-BC demonstrated efficient phenolic compounds removal performance, making it a promising and economical adsorbent for the hybrid adsorption-aerobic treatment system<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. A. Lawal A. U. Dzivama N. A. Aviara M. A. Hassan M. R. Zakaria Y. Shirai Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 729 740 Modification, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Insulated Box for Post-Harvest Handling of Fish <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In order to address the challenges associated with postharvest handling of fresh fish, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) developed an insulated transportation mechanism named Ice Fish Box™ which has a capacity of 18 kg of fish and ice. However, capacity and ease of movement was encountered in the developed box leading to modification using a smaller box (inner box) of dimension 495 mm×340 mm× 340 mm fitted into a bigger box of dimension 540 mm×360 mm× 360 mm and a trolley on wheels using human muscle power for ease of movement. The construction was carried out using standard procedures and all materials used were sourced locally. Results of its performance tests indicated that the modified box can carry approximately 60 kg of fish and ice at full load and the trolley can carry load of up to 120 kg of stacked boxes and swerves easily at angle 45º.&nbsp; It is expected that these modifications would allow for more storage of fish and ease movement on all terrains as handlers mostly women find it almost difficult in moving the earlier designed insulated box around<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. A. Atanda A. O. Anifowoshe M. O. Oladeinde Q. A. Olumoh I. O. Udefi P. O. Pessu Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 741 750 Influence of Antimony Micro-Alloy Addition on the Mechanical Properties of Carbidic Austempered Ductile Iron (CADI) <p>In this research work, the influence of antimony micro-alloy addition on the hardness property, impact energy and wear resistance of carbidic austempered ductile iron (CADI) was investigated. Rod-shaped samples were produced using a sand casting technique to investigate the influence of antimony micro-quantities on the microstructural modification of the high manganese content (CADI). Selected mechanical properties of the product (CADI) have been tested.&nbsp; Rod-shaped samples were produced using a sand casting technique to investigate the influence of antimony micro-quantities on the microstructural modification of the high manganese content (CADI). Selected mechanical properties of the product (CADI) have been tested. Rod-like shape samples were produced by sand casting technique used for evaluating the influence of micro - quantities of antimony on the microstructural modification of high manganese content carbidic austempered ductile iron (CADI) with respect to the selected me 7chanical properties. Six compositions of carbidic ductile iron (CDI) with varying antimony content ranging from 0.096 % to 0.480 wt. % were produced, having equivalent carbon of hyper-eutectic composition (4.43). These samples were heated to austenitic temperature of 910ºC and subjected to austempering temperature, 300ºC for period of 1-3 hours. Microstructural examination of the samples was carried out to study the matrix and reinforcing phases present. The abrasion wear resistance was evaluated in accordance with the ASTM G 65 standard. The results show that; the obtained wear resistance values ranging from 2.35E8 to 3.29 E9 with respect to unmodified CADI (taken as reference material) The results show that the wear resistance values ranging from 2.35E8 and 3.29 E9 with respect to CADI sample without antimony addition taken as reference material, Rockwell hardness values obtained ranging from 28.6 – 55 HRc and impact toughness values ranges from 46.5 – 53 J for the developed CADI. Micrographs obtain revealed that chunky graphite, blocky carbides and pearlite phases were seen in the as-cast sample without antimony addition while the samples with varying addition of antimony element showed spiky graphite, granular carbide and more pearlite phases. However, after subjecting the samples to austempering processes, the pearlite phase transformed to ausferritic structure, while the carbide and graphite structure remained unaltered. The produced CADI is found to be useful for agricultural implements production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Aliu A. A. Barnabas A. M. Rufai S. O. Okpo Copyright (c) 2022 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 18 4 751 760