ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2490 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Preparation of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse <p><em>In this study, the pretreatment by milling, dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, and subsequent fermentation of its glucose product was performed to investigate the effects of process conditions on the production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis was carried out using HCl at three substrate concentrations of 20, 25, and 30% (w/v) of bagasse to distilled water. Hydrolysis parameters (time, acid concentration, and temperature) were varied for each case of substrate concentration in full factorial experiments, and an optimum glucose yield of 1.907 g/L was obtained with the 20% (w/v) substrate concentration, at conditions of 10 min time, 0.5 M acid concentration, and 80</em><em>°</em><em>C temperature. Thereafter, fermentation experiment was performed with S. cerevisiae in the product of hydrolysis. An optimum ca. 207 yeast number of colonies (yield: 20, 700, 000 cfu/ml) was achieved in 40 h, and the growth of S. cerevisiae was governed by the kinetic equation, ln X</em><em><sub>t </sub></em><em>= 8.4338 + 0.2943t.</em></p> F. A. Aderibigbe A. L. Adejumo I. A. Mohammed S. I. Mustapha E. O. Akinkahunsi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 1 17 Mechanical and Structural Responses of Low Carbon Steel to Cold Rolling and Stress Relief Anneal Treatments <p><em>This study investigated the effect of deformation by cold rolling and stress relief anneal on the mechanical and structural properties of low carbon steel. The as-received steel samples were cold rolled at 20% – 40 % degrees of deformation using Buhler rolling machine in Metallurgical and Materials engineering department University of Lagos, Nigeria. Additionally, some of the cold rolled samples were annealed at a temperature of 650° C and soaked for 1 hour in a muffle furnace. The results revealed that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percent elongation, hardness and impact strength of the cold rolled low carbon steel improved significantly after stress relief anneal due to the elimination of induced strain hardening caused by cold rolling. The micrographs show that cold rolled + stress relief anneal caused significant recrystallization of ferrite-austenite phase to refine martensite with reduction of dislocations. Therefore, the low carbon steel can be used effectively for structural purposes in machines and equipment.</em></p> M. A. Bodude W. A. Ayoola A. Oyetunji Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 18 27 Evaluation of a Low-Cost Greenhouse for Controlled Environment Cultivation of Sweet Pepper <p><em>Sustainable agriculture is critical towards paving a way for year-round production and supply of food all year round. Cultivation of fruits and vegetables are vital due to high demand and nutritional values it provides to consumers. The rising global population especially in developing countries require other alternatives for sustainable crop production. Cultivation in controlled environments using functional and durable greenhouse structures presents an option. A low-cost greenhouse was designed and constructed in Ibadan, Nigeria using locally available materials was evaluated. Afrormosia wood was used in constructing the frame while polyethylene of 2.5 mm thickness was used as sheathing material for the walls. The floor which covered an area of 24 m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;was made of porous concrete of batching mixture 1:4 (cement to gravel) while the wall was 4 m high. Ventilation was passive with a vent area equal to 25% of total surface area; made up of 20% at the wall area and 5% as the roof vent. The roof was pitched at a 18</em><em>°</em><em>&nbsp;slope to allow easy drainage of rain water. Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, Cabernet) seeds procured Burpee Seeds USA were cultivated with the aid of planting pots within the greenhouse in comparison with those planted in the open field for a duration of eight weeks. Evaluation was based on crop growth and yield parameters correlated with solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse and ambient environments, respectively using randomized complete block design. Data were subjected to descriptive and correlation analysis. Peak temperature and RH were 31.1</em><em>°</em><em>C and 91.1% respectively within the greenhouse in comparison with 29.7</em><em>°</em><em>C and 89.7% respectively outside. Peak solar radiation was 413.4 W/m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;in the greenhouse compared to 690.3 W/m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;in the ambient. Growth parameters showed that the crops in the greenhouse performed optimally when compared with plants in the open field with a yield of 18.1 t/ha in the greenhouse compared with no-yield recorded in the open field. Utilization of greenhouses in crop cultivation can help to mitigate the problem of food shortage.</em></p> M. O. Omobowale Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 28 36 The Effect of Fiber Sizes on Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk (Pennisetum glaucum) Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites <p><em>This study examined the effect of fiber sizes on the mechanical properties of millet husk powder (MHP) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) thermoplastic composites. The MHP-HDPE composites were prepared by melt blending techniques, accompanied by compression molding process. Three different fiber sizes; 250µm, 500µm and 750µm were pulverized and the fiber loading was 10%, 20% 30% and 40% by weight. Tensile and impact properties were tested using universal testing machine (UTM). 1The results show that ensile strength increased at certain loadings while tensile modulus increased by increasing the millet fiber loading. While the impact strength decreases substantially with increase fiber loading the tensile strain considerably decreased at millet husk fiber application above 10%. Therefore, it was observed that composites with least size fiber indicated improvement with increasing strength as well as relative extension.</em></p> A. A. Hammajam I. Z. Nur S. M. Salit L. Zulkeffle Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 37 47 Real-Time Detection of Abandoned Object using Centroid Difference Method <p><em>An abandoned object is one that remains stationary for an extended period. Such object might contain explosives and if left on purpose could cause death and injuries to people especially in crowded places. Abandoned objects need to be detected on time to prevent what might endanger people’s lives and health. Various methods have been developed to detect abandoned objects. The most reliable one is the vision-based method which automatically detects the abandoned object using image processing. The efficiency of the method was tested and evaluated on the customized datasets as well as the i-Lids advanced video surveillance system database. The Self -organizing Background Subtraction (SOBS) method overrides other methods in terms of its detection accuracy and simplicity of implementation, but fails for dynamic background scenarios. This work presents a real time vision-based object detection method using the centroid difference to improve on the accuracy of the detection and to tackle challenges of dynamic background of the SOBS method. Matlab Image processing toolbox was used to achieve this goal. The strategy is basically decomposed into two; foreground detection and stationary foreground object (SFO) detection. Gaussian Mixture Model is used for detecting the presence of newly introduced object into a scene (foreground detection), while the blob tracking approach based on frame counting is used to determine whether the detected foreground object is static/ abandoned or not. The results show that the detection accuracy of 83% was obtained which outperform the SOBS method with 67% accuracy. Future research should focus on tracking the person that abandoned the object for onward prosecution.</em></p> Y. A. Samaila H. Rabiu I. Mustapha Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 48 57 Performance Studies of Natural Rubber/Organomodified Kaolin Vulcanizates Developed for Tire Sidewall Applications <p><em>This study aims at evaluating the performance of Natural Rubber/organomodified kaolin vulcanizates to ascertain its suitability for tire sidewall applications. The cure characteristics, filler dispersion, tensile and tear properties and De</em><em>-</em><em>Mattia flex fatigue characteristics of natural rubber </em><em>(</em><em>NR</em><em>) filled</em><em>&nbsp;with 2</em><em>-</em><em>10 phr of Rubber Seed Oil </em><em>(</em><em>RSO</em><em>)</em><em>,</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>and Tea Seed Oil </em><em>(</em><em>TSO</em><em>) </em><em>modified kaolin developed specifically for tire sidewall applications were assessed. The NR compounds containing RSO and TSO modified kaolin showed lower optimum cure time </em><em>(</em><em>t90 at 150°C</em><em>) </em><em>as against that containing the same dosage of unmodified kaolin</em><em>. </em><em>The results show significant increases in tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength for the NR vulcanizates containing the organomodified kaolins, compared to vulcanizates containing unmodified kaolin</em><em>. TSO modified kaolin vulcanizates at 6phr </em><em>showed better resistance to crack initiation and flex fatigue failure</em><em>. </em><em>The SEM and AFM micrographs of the vulcanizates containing organomodified kaolins also showed an excellent uniform dispersion of the filler particles in the NR matrix</em><em>.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The results obtained for Natural Rubber/Tea Seed Oil modified kaolin vulcanizates at 10phr shows a short optimum cure time, high maximum torque, better tear strength, excellent resistance to crack initiation and flex fatigue behaviour. These indicate that the Natural Rubber/Tea Seed Oil modified kaolin vulcanizates are preferred materials for tire sidewall applications</em><em>.</em></p> C. O. Mgbemena C. E. Mgbemena Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 58 64 Response Surface Optimization of a Plastic Powder Processing Machine using Desirability Function Approach <p><em>Optimal performance and operational parameters of a plastic powder processing machine used for converting used PET bottles into powdered form was assessed in this study. The geometrical (operational) parameters investigated include: speed of hammermill shaft, number of blades on the hammermill, length of hammermill blade and intrinsic viscosity of the PET processed while grain size produced, throughput and conversion efficiency constitute the machine’s (performance) parameters. The interactions of these factors (operational parameters) and responses (performance parameters) were evaluated and estimated using a completely randomized Box-Behnken blocked design layout which comprises twenty seven (27) experimental runs. Desirability function approach was the optimization technique applied. Results revealed the optimal values of hammermill speed, number of blades, blade length and intrinsic viscosity as 1400 rpm, 4, 109.6 mm and 0.82798 respectively with responses of 89.71%, 1.9953 kg/min and 139.9998 for conversion efficiency, throughput and grain size respectively. These optimal operational parameters will make the machine economical to operate in terms of labour, time and energy requirement.</em></p> C. N. Nwogu U. Remy J. O. Igbokwe A. C. Okoronkwo Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 65 75 Optimization of Fin Geometry for Condensation on Integral Fin Tubes <p><em>This paper reports an optimization aimed at verifying the accuracy of a semi-empirical condensation heat transfer model in calculating the enhancement ratio of a rectangular- finned tube. Three condensing fluids (ethylene glycol, refrigerant-R113 and steam) and three tube materials (copper, brass and bronze) were used to evaluate the response of the model at different fluid properties. Optimum tube geometries (diameter, fin thickness, height and spacing) were calculated and later compared with those geometries of a real condenser. The verification was achieved by comparing the condensation results of the model based on numerical calculations using Excel spread sheet with an established experimental data from the measurements of condensation heat transfer. The optimization results showed that the model accurately predicted the observed trends in the experimental data for the condensing fluids of steam, R113 and ethylene glycol. Condensation of refrigerant-R113 on copper tube material was found to be the best predicted model. Calculated optimum fin spacing for steam as a condensing fluid corresponded reasonably to those of a real condenser. Optimum fin spacing increased with increased surface tension.</em></p> H. A. Dandajeh Y. S. Sanusi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 76 84 Kinetics of Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Paunch Manure and Sugarcane Peels using Cow Dung as Inoculum <p><em>Anaerobic co-digestion offers a prospective medium for transforming organic solid wastes into fuel, thereby providing an extra source of energy. This study investigates the kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of paunch manure and sugarcane peels using cow dung as inoculum for biogas production. Anaerobic assay setup was in 3 digesters of 4 replicates with a total of 12 replicate batch digesters under mesophilic temperature range (30-35</em><em>°</em><em>C) for a retention time of 30 days. Cumulative biogas production for all digesters were measured and fitted to some selected models. The modified Gompertz equation was tested for its fitness. The kinetic parameters viz., biogas yield potential (P), maximum biogas production rate (Rm) and the duration of lag phase (λ) were recorded for each case as the digester with 0g sugarcane peels (control) produced maximum biogas of (83.14 (mL/g VS)) and the kinetic parameters P, Rm and λ were 89.0018 ml (g VS</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>), 4.7089 ml (g VS d)</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>, 0.8734 days respectively. It was observed that biogas production potential was inversely proportional to the substrate concentration of sugarcane peels in the digesters, the highest concentration of sugarcane peels (1.8g SP) recorded the lowest quantity of biogas with 37.9075 mL/g VS, 1.4547 g VS</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>, 1.0891 days. Therefore, sugarcane peels should be co-digested with other substrates. The experimental kinetic data in-line with the Gompertz Model, Modified Gompertz Model Equation.</em></p> N. H. Abdulhakeem A. A. Lawal Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 85 91 Rollover Stability Models for Three-Wheeled Vehicle Design <p><em>The current commercial &nbsp;three-wheeled vehicles (TWVs) in the market are rollover unstable, with adverse effects on life and property. &nbsp;This places limitation on their speed and usage, even though they are fuel efficient, cheap and generate about 33% of green gases per rider when compared with four-wheeled vehicles.This work derived mathematical models for the analysis of the stability of the three-wheeled vehicle (TWV). Based on these models, the test method for rollover stability was adopted. Rollover test was carried out on a TWV on Nigerian road. The results showed that the vehicle is unstable with respect to rollover stability. The test procedure if adopted and legislated upon, would significantly enhance safety of life and property of the population. Moreover, the speed and usage of the vehicle for both private and commercial purposes will be enhanced.</em></p> S. J. Ojolo O. O. Ajayi G. A. Asuelinmen Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 92 99 Cloud-Based Iot Monitoring System for Poultry Farming in Nigeria <p><em>The monitoring of environmental parameters of poultry farm using IoT applications is no longer a new research area in the field of engineering. However, the cost of implementing most of the reviewed research work seams unaffordable to rural farmers in Nigeria. This could limit the adoption and usage of such devices. In this paper, we present a cost-effective cloud-based IoT monitoring system for poultry farming. The system uses two vital weather parameters- temperature and humidity. The methodology adopted, employed the use of DHT11 sensor (a temperature and humidity sensor) to note every change in temperature and humidity data of the farm environment. The sensed data were extracted, sampled and processed by the microcontroller before transmitting the data to a remote cloud server through the WiFi module. The cloud server (Thingspeak) received the sensed data, analysed the data and plot the data graphically. The plotted graph is viewed from a computer or any smart devices. The result indicates that temperature and humidity values range between 33-38</em><em>°</em><em>C and 31-33mmHg respectively. Furthermore, the results show that the device is efficient in monitoring the two environmental parameters. Therefore, the efficiency of the system will no doubt provide much quicker and accurate information about change in temperature and humidity data of farm environment.</em></p> A. S. Gbadamosi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 100 108 Assessment of Calcium Carbide Waste and Calcined Clay as Stabilizer in Flexible Pavement Construction <p><em>Stabilization techniques have often been used globally to enhance properties of weak subgrade materials for flexible pavement construction. This study assessed the blend of calcium carbide waste (CCW) and calcined clay (CC) to serve as an effective stabilizer of Subgrade material (S) sourced from a section along Ota-Idiroko road. Subgrade material was initially modified with CCW in different percentage replacements by weight (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%) and the resulting blends were subjected to Atterberg’s limits test to determine the blend with optimum plasticity index reduction which would be tagged optimum subgrade lime blend (OSLB). The blend of S + 8% CCW was tagged OSLB because it exhibited optimum plasticity index reduction. The OSLB was thereafter blended by weight with CC in the following percentage replacements 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% in order to activate the pozzolanic potentials of CC for strength enhancement. The resulting blends were subjected to Atterberg’s limits, Compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests with the strength specimens cured for 0, 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The results showed that OSLB-CC blends reduced the Plasticity index from14.8 to 8.4 %, Maximum dry density from 1.82 to 1.54 Mg/m3, Optimum moisture content, 23.7 to 17.9 % and increased soaked CBR, 0 to 418.2% and UCS, 201.59 to 5660.84 kPa of natural subgrade respectively. Furthermore, the blends showed great improvement with reduction in PI less than standard value of 10% and increment in standard CBR and UCS values of 180% and 1700 kPa respectively for base course material. Therefore, stabilized blends at 7 days curing period could improve the natural subgrade to subbase and base for pavement construction.</em></p> H. A. Quadri O. S. Abiola S. O. Odunfa J. O. Azeez Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 109 119 The Challenges and Panaceas to Power Distribution Losses in Nigeria <p><em>Energy losses in the distribution </em><em>network and its subsystems</em><em>&nbsp;have been issue</em><em>s</em><em>&nbsp;of great concern</em><em>s</em><em>&nbsp;in Nigeria’s power sector. For decades, several studies have been conducted on the challenges facing the power sector in Nigeria with most focus directed on the distribution subsystems. The major challenge in the distribution system is </em><em>the </em><em>high energy losses which are detrimental to the techno-economic benefits of the power systems. However, details of the distribution system challenge</em><em>s</em><em>&nbsp;and the probable solutions have not been efficiently presented. In this study</em><em>, </em><em>some of these challenges are presented and the potential solutions are proposed. The features of the Nigeria distribution network, the technical and non-technical sources of losses as well as the identified challenges are presented before </em><em>discussing</em><em>&nbsp;the potential solutions. The panaceas so provided were from the understanding of some published works and other related materials as well as the in-depth understanding of the authors. This article can serve as a guide for the utilities and stakeholders in the power sector for efficient management operations and improved customer service delivery</em><em>.</em></p> O. O. Mohammed A. O. Otuoze S. Salisu A. E. Abioye A. M. Usman R. A. Alao Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 120 136 Effects of Crushed and Powdered Brick Particles on Lightweight Papercrete <p><em>This paper studied a light weight paper and mortar composite called papercrete which was produced using brick particles as aggregate and as pozzolan. Papercrete samples were produced with crushed brick particles to completely substitute sand as fine aggregate and labelled Sample BAP. Another set of samples were produced using crushed brick particles as aggregate and powdered brick particles as pozzolan to partially replace 10% of the cement content. These were labelled Sample BCP. Additional samples labelled Sample SP were produced with sand as aggregate and with no cement replacement to serve as controls. Initially, an X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on powdered brick particles to assess their chemical composition in line with ASTM 618. A total of 135 test samples were cast and tested for density, water absorption, compressive strength and tensile strength at 14 and 28 days. Similarly, samples were subjected to thermal conductivity and fire reaction tests. The results show an increase in density, compressive and tensile strength of Samples BAP and BCP over Sample SP. Additionally, all samples recorded low thermal conduction and a good reaction to fire as none of the samples ignited when subjected to fire. However, all samples had high water absorption values. It was concluded that using crushed and powdered brick particles to produce papercrete increases its density and strength and can be used as aggregate and pozzolan in producing papercrete</em><em>.</em></p> M. U. Tangbo M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 137 146 Modification of Thermal Hydraulic Transient Models for the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor <p><em>A modified Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) model dealing with transient thermal hydraulic problem is presented. The model based on lumped parameter method is adopted in this work to numerically solve a system of coupled algebraic and differential equations governing heat transfer in MNSR, using MATLAB solver for variable order method in stiff differential equations and Differential-Algebraic equations, coupled with Maple soft. The simulated results obtained from the model were generally in agreement when compared with reactor operation data recorded from 0 to 270 minutes during experiments. Radiating energy of Fuel and clad and heat transferred at the gap or clearance were taken in to account. Fuel and clad temperatures as well as various temperatures at different sections of the reactor were predicted with the model, in addition to the effect of the installed chiller on the reactor coolant.</em></p> N. Abubakar I. Garba M. T. Jimoh Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 147 163 Prediction of Natural Gas Compressibility Factor in a Single-Phase Gas Reservoir: A Comparative Study <p><em>Natural gas compressibility factor plays important roles in pipeline design, reserve estimation and gas metering. The aim of this study is to presents the most accurate and reliable method of computing gas compressibility factor in a single-phase gas reservoir at various reservoir pressures. In this study, the gas compositions and the specific gravity of the respective gas compounds were retrieved from literatures. This specific gravity determine the pseudo critical and the pseudo reduced properties (temperature and pressure) of the respective gas compounds being studied. The predicted methods studied are Papay correlation, Hall-Yarborough equation of state (EOS), viral EOS, Beggs and Brill and Dranchuk-Abu-Kassem correlation. The methods are expressed as functions of the pseudo-reduced temperature and pressure, thereby predicting the compressibility factor of the predicted methods. The accuracy and the performance of the methods were tested by comparing the results obtained from the methods studied with experimental z-factor values obtained from the literatures. The experimental z-factor values were set as standard for the predicted methods studied. Six (6) statistical parameters and various charts (line and column charts) were used to attest the effectiveness and the precision of the methods. The statistical tools are average absolute error (AAE), average absolute relative error (AARE), root mean square error (RMSE), residual sum of square (RSS), mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination (R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>). The results of the study shows that, the Papay correlation has the highest coefficient of regression, R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>= 92%, rated as the most accurate, reliable and best method. The Hall-Yarborough equation of state has R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;of 86%. The Viral equation of state has R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;of 83%. The Beggs and Brill correlation has R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;of 42%. The Dranchuk-Abu-Kassem correlation has R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;of 10.5%. The Beggs and Brills correlation method is not suitable for application, if the pseudo-reduced pressure is less than 0.92. The Dranchuk-Abu-Kassem correlation is only applicable, if the pseudo-reduced properties are within the range of 0.2&lt;P</em><em><sub>pr</sub></em><em>&lt;15, 1.0&lt;T</em><em><sub>pr</sub></em><em>&lt;3.0. The Hall-Yarborough equation of state cannot be used if the pseudo-reduced temperature is less than one.</em></p> M. N. Bello M. A. Musa Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 164 178 Performance Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine using Variable Blade Pitch Control Mechanism <p><em>This work investigates the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) with variable blade pitch control mechanism. The control mechanism is a simple mechanical Watt governor design, which was developed to regulate the blade pitch angle of the HAWT depending on wind speed magnitude. The HAWT model with the control mechanism was tested for performance in a wind tunnel. Response of the control mechanism in terms of blade pitch angle, rotor speed and generator power output were analyzed based on regulated predetermined wind speeds. The result shows a gradual increase in rotor speed and a proportional increase in generator power output between cut-in wind speed of 2.5m/s and rated wind speed of 6 m/s. These parameters were kept constant at 100 RPM and 50 Watts as observed due to the steady response of the control mechanism. The steadiness lasted up to a cut-out wind speed of 9 m/s. The control mechanism subsequently shutdown the turbine at the cut-out wind speed to protect the turbine against wind speeds higher than 9 m/s. The performance test predicts that the variable blade pitch control mechanism was able to regulate and bring about the require control of HAWT model. The mechanism allows the turbine to only operate between 2.5 and 9 m/s at blade pitch angle between 82 and 90 degrees from the axis of wind flow and change in governor height between 0 to 8 mm.</em></p> M. Shuwa G. M. Ngala A. M. El- jummah Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 179 187 Ergonomic Analysis Of A Developed Wheelchair Using Creative Algorithm <p><em>Mobility aids are important for disabled and aged patients for transportation or replacement for walking especially in indoor and outdoor environments. To guaranty the effective and efficient use of these mobility aids devoid of any form of epidemiological conditions, the level of comfort and ease of use must be ascertained. In this research, a simple and affordable wheel chair designed in previous work was analyzed to support patients in terms of ease and comfort of use. The method adopted for this study was the use of creative algorithm. Anthropometric measures were considered in the dimensioning of the wheel chair seat. It was necessary to test how ergonomically comfortable the wheelchair was </em><em>in use by deploying an effective decision metrics tool known for dealing with complex decision-making process and may aid the decision maker to set priorities and make the best decision. By reducing complex decisions to a series of pair wise comparisons, and then synthesizing the results. Our findings showed an average ergonomic rating of 0.62 which indicate a relatively high degree of comfort ability in the use of the wheelchair. &nbsp;The use of these wheelchairs would greatly improve the community of people who have lost some means of independent mobility thereby leading to an improvement in their self-esteem. This will enable them pursues their daily vocation and life goals. The wheel </em><em>chair will also serve as a novel for medical facilities in hospitals and help facilitate movement of disabled patients in homes, schools, entrepreneurial centres and hospitals.</em></p> F. I. Ashiedu M. O. Okwu Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 188 192 Organic Matter and Heavy Metals Leachate Effect on Soils of Selected Dumpsites in Selected North Central States of Nigeria <p><em>This research was conducted to assess the presence &nbsp;of some heavy metals Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Aluminum (Al) in municipal solid waste dumps. Heavy metals in the soils were determined at varying depths of 0-5cm, 5-15cm and 15-30cm to assess the extent of pollution and the effects of pH and organic matter in the soil. Heavy metals concentrations were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results revealed a significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) in the concentrations of heavy metals across varying depth at the dumpsites when compared with control points in the same location. Mn had the highest mean 131.22 ± 25.98 mgkg</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>&nbsp;followed by Fe, which is 69 ± 11.02 mgkg</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>&nbsp;at the dumpsites. Mean concentration of all the Heavy metals investigated at the various dumpsites studied were significantly higher than at the control point and below the maximum standard levels set by FAO and WHO for agricultural soils. Result of particle distribution indicated higher sand content (&gt; 80.0%) and lower clay and silt contents in both dumpsite and control site which implies the ease of movement of dissolved metals in the soil environment. Organic Matter (OM) content at dumpsites was observed to be slightly higher than at the control sites. The data also signifies that as pH decreases and %OM decreases the concentration of these heavy metals decreases down the soil profile. It is, therefore, concluded that accumulation of heavy metals in depth was highly correlated with pH and organic matter content.</em></p> J. J. Musa J. D. Bala H. I. Mustapha E. T. Musa M. P. Akos Y. I. Yerima E. S. Daniel Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 16 1 193 210 Development of a Motorized Hydraulic Press for Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Oil Expression <p><em>Sesame oil is edible and of high economic and medicinal potentials. However, its expression from the seeds is still largely done manually which is tedious and inefficient. The few imported mechanical oil presses are prone to incessant breakdown and costly. A motorized hydraulic press for sesame oil expression was designed, fabricated and tested. The major components of the machine include a hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic pump, two-way control valves, heater band with temperature controller, stopper plate, electric motor and the frame. Paste of ground sesame seeds wrapped in a cheese cloth was forced against a stopper end plate on the expression barrel whose temperature is controlled in order to get the oil expressed out. The machine performance was evaluated using two levels of seed conditions (roasted (RS) and unroasted (URS)) at three levels of moisture contents (6, 9 and 12% wet basis) and four levels of temperature (70, 80, 90 and 100ºC). The performance indicators investigated included: throughput capacity, percentage oil yield, percentage expression efficiency and cake recovery efficiency. Results of tests showed that the highest percentage oil yield of 33.3% was recorded when sesame seed was roasted, milled and pressed at a moisture content of 6% and expression temperature of 90ºC. &nbsp;Also the highest expression efficiency was recorded as 69.4% when the seed was roasted, milled and pressed at a moisture content of 6% and temperature of 90ºC. The highest cake recovery was recorded as 74% when the sesame seed was milled without roasting at a moisture content of 12% and temperature of 70ºC. The oil press would assist in the growth of indigenous edible oil production industry.</em></p> T. A. Ishola A. N. Efomah A. Gbabo Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-03-02 2020-03-02 16 1 211 221