ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=M32TLtAAAAAJ&amp;hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2545-5818?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22terms%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%5B%222545-5818%22%5D%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22size%22%3A100%2C%22_source%22%3A%7B%7D%7D" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="https://unimaid.academia.edu/AZOJETEUNIMAID" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="http://paper.researchbib.com/view/issn/1596-2490/9/1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="http://cosmosimpactfactor.com/page/journals_details/2486.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="https://www.citefactor.org/journal/index/17181/arid-zone-journal-of-engineering-technology-and-environment#.XhqbMb5KjIU" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href="http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php?action=browse&amp;subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/journal-detail.html?number=4371" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; 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Recent evidence has suggested that NMES-evoked muscle contractions enhance motor ability for physical performance in healthy individuals, maintain muscle health, and offset secondary complications of inactivity in persons with neurological conditions. However, the traditional NMES operation is inefficient, thus making the NMES outcomes less than optimal. Responsible for this is the lack of mechanical responses of muscle from the electrically-evoked limb during NMES-evoked contractions. This study investigated the use of a muscle contraction signal (mechanomyography, MMG) generated during NMES-evoked contractions in healthy knee extensors in tracking the muscle mechanical responses during NMES-evoked force production. Six healthy males underwent NMES-evoked submaximal-to-maximal isometric contractions, in random order, of their knee extensors at 30deg and 90deg knee angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. The MMG signal was acquired through an accelerometer sensor affixed to the rectus femoris (RF) muscle belly. Paired samples t-tests was used to compare the relationship between the two knee angles (90deg and 30deg) tested. Results show that the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG-RMS) increased with increase in torque production and stimulation intensity up to 50 mA and 60 mA at knee flexion angles of 90deg and 30deg, respectively, before the appearance of plateau-like contractions—an indication of fusion of contracting muscle fibre at maximal contraction level. Although there were knee angle differences in the pattern of relationship between MMG and stimulation intensity, the effect was only statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for the torque versus stimulation intensity plot. These results suggest that MMG-RMS tracks motor unit recruitment strategy that might be responsible for muscle force/joint torque modulation during electrically stimulated contractions. The MMG signals may, therefore, have a clear application as an indicator of muscle force in areas where muscle force is needed and impractical to measure.</p> M. O. Ibitoye N. A. Hamzaid Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 1 8 A User Mobility Broadband Spectrum Aggregation Applications in LTE-Advance Heterogeneous Wireless Network Systems Using Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/846 <p>Mobile user equipment can benefit from increased bandwidth and radio coverage of various access technologies through carrier aggregation and integration of heterogeneous networks. However, because of the mobility of user equipment, these technologies have increased the frequency of handoff scenarios, which results in low throughput and a high outage probability. In order to enable users to move between cells without losing connections, handover is an essential part of mobility management. However, no lone access mechanism can provide seamless and delay-free seamless interaction. As a result, the development of a suitable handover decision algorithm is necessary to ensure excellent service continuity and dependable user equipment access to the network at any location and at any moment. To confirm if various handover choice algorithms are effective in preventing communication failures and enhancing system performance. This research produced a mathematical model for the Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework and Handover Decision Algorithm (RSSF-HDA). Additionally, mathematical models were extracted for comparison between the Multi-influenced Handover Decision Algorithm (MIF-HDA) and the Conventional Handover Decision Algorithm (Conv-HDA). A statistical comparative study was carried out using data from MTN drive-test readings at the Low-Cost housing estate located in Abesan, Ipaja, Lagos. According to statistical analysis results, the Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework and Handover Decision Algorithm enhance system performance in terms of Cell edge Spectral Efficiency, and user throughput when compared with multi-influenced handover Algorithm and MTN field readings. For cell edge Spectral Efficiency at an average speed of 80km/s, RSSF-HDA gave a value of 1.52 bits/Hertz compared to MIF-HDA and MTN field readings with values of 1.37bits/Hertz and 1.33bits/Hertz respectively. For user throughput, inferred that there is no significant difference in readings of system throughput from the MTN field readings, MIF-HDA, and simulated RSSF-HDA which were 31%, 33%, and 34% respectively.&nbsp;</p> V. O. Nkeleme E. U. Udo C. K. Okoro L. I. Oborkhale K. O. Odo Copyright (c) 2024 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 20 1 9 24 Effect of Dielectric Properties of Building Structural Materials on Attenuation of Microwave Signals in Urban Areas of Nigeria https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/850 <p>Dielectric properties determine how buildings attenuate communication signals. It is therefore an important factor in the propagation of signals. While building loss is an important parameter in link planning, it is often poorly characterized, and the data relating to the effect of building materials on propagation is either unavailable or poorly represented. In this paper, scattering parameters of typical urban buildings in Nigeria are measured to determine signal penetration loss for the frequency range of 800MHz to 3.2GHz. Building materials tested include reinforced concrete slabs, hollow sandcrete blocks, and prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs. The finishing of these materials ranged from burn bricks, rough paint, smooth paint, smooth wall tiles, smooth glassy tiles, to hardwood. The measurements were carried out using the oblique free-space measurement method. The dielectric properties of tested building materials were derived using the new non-iterative conversion method. Model equations that can predict scattering parameters and dielectric properties of a building given the test frequency and thickness of the building were also derived. Comparative analysis of the derived model with actual measurements showed an RMSE value ranging from 0.0192 to 0.2188. Results showed that the frequency of propagation, the thickness of the material under test (building wall), and building finishing affect the dielectric properties and contribute to the signal attenuation experienced in buildings. It was also seen that concrete structures had higher permittivity values hence they had difficulty with microwave signal penetration. Sandcrete blocks are therefore recommended for building walls in urban areas.&nbsp;</p> E. Nwaokolo A. Gbenga-Ilori Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 25 44 Investigating the Energy Potential and Quantification of Bida Waste Landfill: A Case Study of Kutufani Dump Site https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/853 <p>Waste management has become a pressing global issue, with an increasing focus on sustainable solutions that not only mitigate environmental concerns but also harness valuable resources. Solid waste in various dump sites in Bida, Nigeria, present a significant environmental challenge, posing health risks to the community while emitting harmful greenhouse gases. Characterisation of Kutufani solid waste was carried out. The proximate and ultimate analysis of the waste samples were carried out. Results showed that 29.7 % of the waste to be composed of various types of plastic materials. Other categories of the waste is composed of paper, agricultural waste and textile materials. The proximate analysis of the waste was conducted and the highest moisture content of 6.36 % and volatile matter 43.16 % were obtained. The ultimate analysis results showed Nitrogen and Sulphur content to be within safe limits. The combined calorific values obtained were 25,771 kJ/kg (HHV) and 18,841 kJ/kg (LHV). The waste is suitable for conversion to energy with gasification or incineration process.&nbsp;</p> A. L. Ndagiman D. R. Suleiman I. Sulaimon Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 45 62 Factors Militating Against Adoption of NSPRI Installed Inert Atmosphere Silo; A Case of Dawanau Grain Market in Kano State https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/854 <p>This research investigated the level of adoption of an inert atmosphere silo at Dawanau international grain market, Kano, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed grain merchants' usage and preference for the inert atmosphere silo. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, one-on-one interview, and focus group discussion (FGD). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and figures. The result indicated a zero percent level of adoption of inert atmospheric silo in the study area. This complete lack of adoption of the technology can be attributed to several factors which according to 74% of the respondents, included the fact that it is not suitable for keeping more than one grain at a time. While 55% of the respondents reported operational complexities and monitoring difficulties, 12% stated that they were not willing to take a chance with their crops. Furthermore, 64% of the respondents pointed out that silo is incompatible with Nigeria's existing grain value chain. Assessment of the preferred method for grain storage showed that the vast majority (86%) of the respondents preferred stores and warehouses. According to the consensus views from all the focus group sessions, merchants indicated that warehouses were mostly preferred because of their ease of use and compatibility with grain value chains, resulting in flexible trading and storage. The study concluded that, despite the free installation of inert atmosphere silos in the Dawanau international grain market by the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, neither the merchants nor retailers are utilizing the technology. It is recommended that a need assessment survey and compatibility study be conducted before technology development to ensure that the technology will meet the needs and expectations of the end-users.</p> D. Oshadumo E. A. Adu L Magaji J. Joel Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 63 70 Technological Capability of Selected Palm Oil Mills in Nigeria https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/855 <p>An assessment of the technological capability of some modern palm oil mills in selected states of Nigeria (viz: Edo, Ogun, Ondo and Osun States) for production of special palm oil was carried out in this study. Information regarding the year of establishment of the mills, ownership of the mills, available facilities, production capacity and status of the mills (among others) were collected from the staffs of the mills. It was observed that government-owned mills (Okitipupa and Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research with capacities of 24 and 6 tons/hr, respectively) were in dilapidated condition and not functioning due to lack of proper maintenance. The mills had resulted into the utilization of intermediate technologies that can barely produce special palm oil and hence the huge investment in the mills has been wasted. In contrast, privately-owned mills (Okomu, JB and Royal Farm with capacities of 45, 8 and 3 tons/hr, respectively) which were also visited were functional. Two of them (Okomu and JB) were observed to have state of the art technologies for production of special palm oil and adopted well-arranged routine maintenance of the mills’ facilities. The study recommended that the existing public mills should be revived through public-private partnership system while privately-owned small-scale mills can be organized into groups such that they can acquire modern facilities for production of special palm oil. It is also recommended that there should be appropriate linkage between the mills and research institutes for sustainability.</p> K. Owolarafe B. S. Ogunsina S. O. Obayopo T. A Morakinyo G. O. Binuyo V. O. Okorie O. B. Falana I. A. Owolabi G. A. Badmus I. O. Olaoye Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 71 82 Impact of Soil Compaction and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in Ile-Ife, Nigeria https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/856 <p>Agricultural vehicle traffic is one of the principal factors responsible for the compaction of surface and subsurface horizons of soil under field conditions. To control this, a field experiment was conducted to examine the response of tractor wheel passes and mulching on the growth and yield of cowpeas. A tillage model can simulate the effect of different components that contribute to the formation of yields and can facilitate the design of alternative agricultural systems.&nbsp;</p> <p>High bulk density was obtained using the core sampler method within the ploughed layer and the active portion of the crop root zone (10-30 cm), while there were increasing trends in bulk density from planting to crop maturity. A model to predict the crop yield as a function of the degree of compaction and extent of mulching was developed. The model summary was significant at a 5 % probability level (p &lt; 0.005). Moreover, interactions between compaction and mulching on cowpea yield showed that the least (0.21 tha-1) and highest (0.51 tha-1) cowpea grain yield occurred at the point when treatment was 4 tractor passes and no mulch and 0 passes with 60 kg mulch, respectively. Mulch with no compaction performed better in growth and yields as well as yield-related parameters compared to compaction only without mulch. This gives the best soil management practice that will result in good growth and maximum productivity of cowpeas.&nbsp;</p> O. B. Adeboye S. O. Odediran A. P. Adeboye O. K. Adekalu Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 83 92 Effects of Pathloss on Capacity of Wireless LTE Network in Fupre, Effurun, Nigeria https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/857 <p>The impact of path loss has significant implications for the pricing strategies adopted by mobile communication companies. Accurate determination of path loss is crucial for effectively planning and operating high-capacity networks that deliver reliable services. Although previous researchers have devised various system designs, these models cannot be universally applied across all environments. The ongoing signal deterioration due to urbanization and industrialization presents a challenge to network capacity. This study aims to develop an Average path loss system specifically tailored for the planning of Worldwide System for Mobile Communication networks in the vicinity of the Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun (FUPRE) and its surrounding areas. The methodology employed involves instrumentation and measurement techniques. Distances in meters are measured using a digital wheel meter, while a handheld Android device equipped with G-MoN Pro software captures data including reference signal strength indicator (RSSI), latitude, and longitude during driving tests conducted along predefined routes. The collected data were subjected to regression analysis. The results indicated that the exponent path loss value (n) is 3.07, suggesting a cellular radio network environment typical of a metropolitan area. The root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.91 dB falls within an acceptable range for the reference measurement environment in the region. The average network models demonstrated greater precision than all other models, producing outputs with a smaller margin of error. Therefore, providers of GSM network infrastructure can leverage this practical model, based on the Log-Normal shadowing principle, to enhance and optimize their services in the FUPRE area and its surroundings</p> D. U. Onyishi V. E. Oweh Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 93 106 Evaluation of on-Farm Drainage System in Nigeria: A Review https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/862 <p>Drainage involves the removal of the excess water on the farm to improve the aeration and trafficability of soils in regions characterized by seasonal high-water tables. There is no doubt that drainage is intrinsically linked to crop yield. A well-drained soil reduces water stress on crops and improves root development, which is required to increase crop yields and food production quality. Nigeria is committed to a national policy that ensures sustainable development based on proper management of the environment to meet the needs of the present and future generations. This demands positive and realistic planning that balances human needs against the potential that the environment has for meeting them. Management strategies must be implemented to achieve effective and efficient drainage systems. The existing on-farm drainage systems were evaluated and found ineffective and efficient; thus, modifications are required to improve the conditions at various locations in Nigeria.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. A. Otuaro J. K. Adewumi Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 107 112 Design of Photovoltaic-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System: Perspective of Energy Management System for Stand Alone Power Solution https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/863 <p>Design of Photovoltaic-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System: Perspective of Energy Management System for Stand Alone Power Solution</p> T. Adefarati F. I. Bawonda P. K. Olulope J. A. Onipe K. O. Adisa H. D. Idris A. O. Abubakar G. S. Alabi G. S. Borisade A. Sobowale Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 113 132 Application of Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal Placement of Static Var Compensator for the Nigerian 330 kV Electricity Grid Performance Enhancement https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/864 <p>Power supply-demand imbalance is one of the critical challenges bedeviling the electricity grid operation of a third world nation such as Nigeria. This has consequently led to the system’s poor voltage profile with its associated high-power losses. Many potent solutions have been proposed to address these problems; however, technological advancements favour the adoption and widespread use of a class of economic and fast acting solid-state controllers called flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS). This study, therefore, assessed the potential of an optimally placed static var compensator (SVC) via genetic algorithm (GA) in enhancing the performance of the Nigerian 330 kV, 28-bus electricity grid. The static power flow model of the system with and without SVC was analyzed using Newton-Raphson method and simulated in MATLAB R2020a environment. The system performance with SVC placed optimally using GA was compared with the first principle approach. The simulation results revealed that before compensation, the test grid had five buses namely Ayede, New-Haven, Gombe, Kano and Makurdi with voltage magnitudes of 0.926, 1.058, 0.906, 0.859 and 0.944 p.u., respectively, violating the acceptable voltage tolerance limit of 0.95≤Vi≤1.05p.u. The first principle-based compensation improved the voltage magnitudes of the critical buses on the test grid to 1.015, 1.008, 0.958, 0.995 and 0.975 p.u., respectively, while compensation via GA enhanced the voltage magnitudes to 1.05, 0.985, 1.038, 1.016 and 0.996 p.u. respectively. The grid’s total active and reactive line losses reduced from 181.479 to 149.786 MW and 145.323 to 125.161 MVAr, respectively with compensation from the first principle approach, whereas the values were minimized to 115.675 MW and 109.336 MVAr, respectively with the GA based compensation. The GA based optimal placement of SVC exhibited better enhancement characteristics on the considered Nigerian electricity grid than the first principle method.</p> O. I. Adebisi A. B. Ogundare B. J. Olajuwon A. Adebeshin Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 133 150 Development of Smart Meter for Energy Billing and Power Management https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/880 <p>Rising cost of energy tariff in Nigeria has brought to the fore the need for energy savings and power management. However, existing prepaid meters in the country are not user friendly. They do not give room for users to track power usage in a bid to observe the impact of load increase on units of energy purchased from utility providers. Load profiles like voltage, current and power of connected loads are not displayed on the energy meters making it impossible to conserve energy and manage power. In addition, these meters do not send notifications to consumers on the status of energy subscription. This study therefore developed a single-phase smart energy meter that availed consumers the opportunity of observing load changes on the screen from time to time. It notified customers via Short Message Service (SMS) when energy subscription was made and when unit of energy was low. The system consisted of hardware and software parts. The hardware parts composed of power supply unit, sensing unit, display unit, GSM module and energy meter. The software part involved programming ATMeg328P microcontroller enshrined on arduino Nano board using C# programming language. The system displayed energy worth of 50Wh for 4naira on the first recharge. This unit of energy was exhausted after leaving the system for several hours by connecting appliances like electric fan, soldering iron and electric iron. In particular, the system displayed power value of 114.73W when standing fan and two soldering irons were connected to the system. The power of connected load increased to 216W when electric iron was added. In addition, the system displayed unit of energy used and the remaining unit at every point in time.&nbsp; It also sent notifications to consumers through SMS to subscribe when energy unit was less than 5Wh and stopped working when energy unit was exhausted. It was therefore seen that the system was functional and displayed load profile (power and voltage) changes appropriately. The system is suitable for use in residential buildings, offices and applications where energy management is required.</p> A. A. Raji S. O. Oladosu Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 151 160 MATLAB SimEvent for Traffic Queue Model https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/882 <p>The use of MATLAB (SimEvent) for network performance measure determination is encouraged by the novel precision that comes with artificial intelligence techniques. However, most efforts in this direction have been undervalued due to distribution assumptions. Therefore, a comparative analysis with an analytical method is studied in this work, with service rate distribution determined, using a distributive StatAssist tool. Kendall’s model adopted was M/M/1 for a single server queueing system and was confirmed by the service rate distributive pattern as 1.0 second per customer. Estimating the network measures showed analytical and simulation models hourly average queue length of 3,751 vehicles, with 1hr and 11minutes waiting time. The total daily queueing length is 8419vehicles, with 8819secs total waiting time. The utilization factor of 0.984 and the model is found to be 0.9825/1.025/1. From the optimum determination of the analytical model (AM) and simulation model (SM) weekly performance measures carried out, the AM produced the following average waiting time 3751, 125, 56, 35, 110, 19, and 17, from Monday through Sunday. In contrast, the SM produced an average waiting time of 3681, 3007, 2789, 2567, 2854, 2467, and 1976 respectively. Due to the continuous waiting line output, the SM has proven realistic. Therefore, the Simulation model coupled with distributive StatAssist tool is recommended for queueing studies. A comparative study of simulators is recommended for further studies.</p> P. B. Anyin P. B. Anyin A. A. Murana Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 161 172 Development of a Generic On-Line Departmental E-Library using the Iterative Design Approach https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/883 <p>This work was based on the development of a departmental digital library that is generic in nature as can be adopted by departments of any specialisation. It aimed at providing easy access to textbooks, lecture materials, past questions, project reports, research theses, published articles, current innovations in the field of study of the department, and various online resources to facilitate academic excellence, efficient delivery of information and advance research activities. A generic iterative and incremental software design approach deployed and a well-structured database directory for managing e-resources was designed. The implementation took the two dimensions of the front-end client-side which involved designing both the user interface and user experience while considering factors such as accessibility, readability and usability and the back-end server-side operations which involved creating a connection between the front-end and the server and managing the database. HTML, CSS and Java Script were employed in programming the front-end while the back-end server side was programmed with PHP, MySQL, and a Content Management System. With e-resources uploaded into the cloud and results of tests conducted on the website showed average time to complete an e-resource search and download is 16.2 seconds, result of the readability test is 8.2 and the result of the accessibility test is 79 aggregated from the results of four different accessibility testers. The generic departmental e-library was developed with website designed to provide easy of online accessibility to students and staff of the department.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. O. Olabisi O. A. Ogunkanmi H. I. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 173 186 Crop Water use of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under Deficit Irrigation in a Controlled Environment https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/885 <p>Cowpea <em>Vigna unguiculata</em> was planted in a pot at a density of one per pot and placed in a greenhouse at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. It was subjected to four water treatments. The treatments were as follows: No deficit irrigation, 25% deficit irrigation, 50% deficit irrigation and 75% deficit irrigation. The pots were weighed each day with a precision weighing scale of accuracy of 1g to determine the amount of water to be added to each treatment. Before the experiment, the physical characteristics of the soil, such as bulk density, were determined. Water was applied to the treatment weekly. The soil in the pots was at field capacity at the start of the experiment, and the amount of water to be applied to each treatment was based on the difference in weight at the end of the week and evaporated based on the above-mentioned water allocation. Some of the chemical characteristics of the irrigated water were also determined. The findings indicated that cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em>) plants were very sensitive to lack of soil water during the total growing season and the yield formation period. A minimal water use efficiency was observed with a 50% deficit irrigation method showing a more sensitive yield response factor Ky (0.269) than other treatments. This implies that 50% deficit irrigation treatment produces a better yield with minimal irrigation water.</p> E. A. Otuaro J. K. Adewumi Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 187 192 Development of Glaucoma Detection System using CNN and SVM https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/886 <p>Glaucoma is an eye illness that began as a result of high intraocular pressure and resulted in total blindness at its advanced stage It is a chronic eye disease caused by the damage of the optic nerve found at the back of the eye and will lead to vision loss. Abnormality in the drainage system of the eye causes fluid buildup that excessively triggers pressure leading to optic nerve damage. The development of Glaucoma detection system using Convolutional neural network (CNN) and Support vector machine (SVM) has been extensively studied in recent years. Many studies have shown that CNNs can accurately detect glaucoma from fundus images, optic nerve head images, and other imaging modalities. To implement CNN and SVM techniques for glaucoma detection, the process typically involves data collection, preprocessing, feature extraction, model training, validation, and testing. MobileNetV2 model and combined SVM-CNN approach was introduced in the research. As The Glaucoma Detection System was constructed using the MobileNetV2 CNN architecture which integrates multiple architectural elements to achieve optimal classification performance. Pre-trained weights were employed from the image data set while transfer Learning with MobileNetV2 approach was applied to empower the model with strong feature extraction capabilities. Global Average Pooling layers were appended to the base architecture, followed by dense layers for classification. These dense layers utilized Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) activation and Dropout regularization to enhance model generalization. As a result, a metric evaluations for detecting Glaucoma Eye disease using Mobile_NetV2 and SVM offered a mean sum of 75% accuracy, 92% precision, 55% recall, 84% AUC and 34% F1 score. In summary, while SVM excels in precision, MobileNetV2 demonstrates better recall, AUC, and overall balanced performance. The choice of model depends on the specific goals and priorities of the glaucoma detection application, such as whether avoiding false positives (precision) or detecting as many true positives as possible (recall) is more critical.</p> N. S. Okomba S. A. Adedayo C. V. Aviara A. O. Esan B. Omodunbi A. S. Chikezie Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 193 214 A User Mobility Broadband Spectrum Aggregation Applications in LTE-Advance Heterogeneous Wireless Network Systems Using Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/888 <p>Mobile user equipment can benefit from increased bandwidth and radio coverage of various access technologies through carrier aggregation and integration of heterogeneous networks. However, because of the mobility of user equipment, these technologies have increased the frequency of handoff scenarios, which results in low throughput and a high outage probability. In order to enable users to move between cells without losing connections, handover is an essential part of mobility management. However, no lone access mechanism can provide seamless and delay-free seamless interaction. As a result, the development of a suitable handover decision algorithm is necessary to ensure excellent service continuity and dependable user equipment access to the network at any location and at any moment. To confirm if various handover choice algorithms are effective in preventing communication failures and enhancing system performance. This research produced a mathematical model for the Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework and Handover Decision Algorithm (RSSF-HDA). Additionally, mathematical models were extracted for comparison between the Multi-influenced Handover Decision Algorithm (MIF-HDA) and the Conventional Handover Decision Algorithm (Conv-HDA). A statistical comparative study was carried out using data from MTN drive-test readings at the Low-Cost housing estate located in Abesan, Ipaja, Lagos. According to statistical analysis results, the Real-Time Spectrum Selection Framework and Handover Decision Algorithm enhance system performance in terms of Cell edge Spectral Efficiency, and user throughput when compared with multi-influenced handover Algorithm and MTN field readings. For cell edge Spectral Efficiency at an average speed of 80km/s, RSSF-HDA gave a value of 1.52 bits/Hertz compared to MIF-HDA and MTN field readings with values of 1.37bits/Hertz and 1.33bits/Hertz respectively. For user throughput, inferred that there is no significant difference in readings of system throughput from the MTN field readings, MIF-HDA, and simulated RSSF-HDA which were 31%, 33%, and 34% respectively.</p> V. O. Nkeleme E. U. Udo C. K. Okoro L. I. Oborkhale K. O. Odo Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 215 230 Modeling of Field Efficiency of a Tine Harrow on Clay Loam Soil in Abia State https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/890 <p>This study was conducted to model the field efficiency of tine harrow on clay-loam soil in Abia State using response surface methodology. This is to assist farmers and operators of the implement to evaluate and probably decide on appropriate harrowing&nbsp;&nbsp; implement depending on the type of soil for their seed bed preparation for efficient production at negligible energy loss. The operational speed (6-8 km/hr.), effective working width (60- 180 cm) and depth of cut (5-10 cm) were adopted as independent factors for the field efficiency study of the tine harrow. Results revealed that the highest field efficiency of 98.40% was recorded when the harrow was operated at the depth of 10cm, speed of 6km/hr. and effective working with of 180cm. The quadratic model was significant (P&lt; 0.05) for the evaluation of field efficiency of the harrow. Results revealed that the coefficient of determination, R2 was 0.91, which indicated good relationship among the variables, also an indication that the response (field efficiency) could describe 91% of the overall erraticism within the response. Result of simulation achieved revealed that the field efficiency fall within the trial range. The predicted R2 (0.77) was compatible with the adjusted R2 (0.80) meaning that the investigational data fitted well.</p> S. N. Eni-Ikeh Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 231 240 A Review and Critique of Advances in the Mitigation of Harmonics https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/891 <p>In electrical power distribution systems, harmonics has always been a major concern as it can adversely affects the performance of the connected loads when tolerable or recommended standard limits are exceeded. There have been consistent and considerable efforts to study the sources, generation and control of harmonics over the years. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the major works on harmonics in the last two and a half decades. The merits and demerits, advantages and limitations of such work were critically reviewed. It was discovered that a lot remains to be done in the optimization of filters especially the hybrid types and that the design of a filter that can simultaneously mitigate low and higher order harmonics has not been thoroughly researched. This paper is intended as a guide for researchers that are interested in solving harmonics problems to identify the gray areas to concentrate and improve on.</p> T. A. Abdul-Hameed M. F. Akorede Y. Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 241 260 A Retrospect of Energy Demand and Potential of Sub-Saharan Africa: Leveraging Energy Deficit to Attain Clean Energy Hub Region https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/892 <p>The lack of reliable energy access is a significant obstacle to the socio-economic progress of the Global South, particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This research explores the current energy demand and access situation, evaluated SSA's renewable energy (RE) potential, identifies barriers to RE development, and proposed strategies to overcome these challenges. The study emphasises the importance of establishing RE infrastructure for a sustainable energy transition and outlined necessary investments. With an impressive 11,000 gigawatts (GW) of exploitable generating capacity, RE has the potential to replace fossil fuels effectively in SSA. The dominant resources are solar (10 TW), hydro (350 GW), wind (110 GW), and geothermal (15 GW) energy. Challenges include high initial costs, limited financing access, grid integration issues, infrastructure deficiencies, regulatory frameworks, and resource variability. To address these challenges, the study suggests policy and regulatory reforms, expanded financing access, capacity building, and improved grid infrastructure. Overall, this research presents the energy deficit and RE potential in SSA as opportunities for the region to become a clean energy hub, requiring collaboration among governments, academic institutions, industry stakeholders, and international organizations.</p> W. S. Ebhota P. Y. Tabakov Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 261 294 Effect of Harrowing Depth, Speed and Effective Cutting Width on Fuel Consumption Rate of a Tine Harrow on Clay Loam Soil in Abia State https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/893 <p>This research was conducted to&nbsp;study the effect of harrowing depth, speed and effective cutting width on fuel consumption rate of a tine harrow on clay loam soil in Abia state to&nbsp;aid farmers to&nbsp;examine and choose the right harrowing implement based on&nbsp;the soil type for an&nbsp;effective and munificent production. The&nbsp;operational speed, effective working width and cutting depth were taken as&nbsp;factors for the study of&nbsp;the fuel consumption rate. The&nbsp;results revealed that the highest fuel consumption rate of 7.5l/ha was noted when the harrow worked at&nbsp;the cutting depth of&nbsp;10&nbsp;cm&nbsp;and a&nbsp;speed of&nbsp;6&nbsp;km·h<sup>–1</sup>&nbsp;and width of 180cm (when working at full width) while the lowest fuel consumption rate of 6.5l/ha was achieved at&nbsp;a&nbsp;speed of&nbsp;6&nbsp;km·h<sup>–1</sup>, working width of 120cm&nbsp;and a&nbsp;cutting depth of&nbsp;5&nbsp;cm. The&nbsp;quadratic model was significant for the response (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05). The&nbsp;results indicated that the coefficient of&nbsp;determination (R<sup>2</sup>) was 0.98, which specified the high correlation among the factors. The&nbsp;predicted&nbsp;R²&nbsp;(0.97) was consistent with the adjusted&nbsp;R²&nbsp;of&nbsp;0.95. The&nbsp;adequacy precision of&nbsp;31.000&nbsp;showed a&nbsp;suitable indicator and that the model could navigate the design space. The optimization process with the optimal operating factor of operational speed of 6.15 km/hr, working width of 180cm and tillage depth of 30cm and the optimum fuel consumption rate and the desirability of 7.17 l/ha and 0.697 were respectively obtained.</p> S. N. Eni-Ikeh Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 295 304 Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Solar-Wind Power System for Heipang Community Load Demand https://azojete.com.ng/index.php/azojete/article/view/894 <p>The electricity generation capacity of Nigeria, which is predominately fossil-based and unsustainable, is far below the energy needs of its growing population and industrial demand. There is a need therefore to increase the level of renewable energy in the energy mix to reduce the adverse effect of fossil fuels on the environment and enhance access to electricity. Assessing the performance of renewable energy systems in a location is a prerequisite for embarking on the technology. In this paper, 10-year average minimum solar radiation and wind speed data of the Heipang community of Barkin-Ladi LGA of Plateau State&nbsp; and load sharing strategy design approach were used to design a hybrid solar wind power system to meet the load demand of the Heipang community. MATLAB codes were written to simulate the designed hybrid solar-wind power system to assess its performance over the year against the given load demand profile using one-year hourly global solar radiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature data. Results show that for a load demand of 158.32 kW and a daily energy demand of 710.59 kWh/day, with two-day autonomy, it will require 283 units of 300W capacity solar panels, 2 units of 50 kW rated capacity wind turbine at 42m high and 90 units of 48V, 350Ah deep cycle batteries to meet the load demand. The capacity factors of solar, wind, and hybrid solar-wind power systems are 18%, 23%, and 21% respectively indicating high renewable energy resource potentials. The performances results also show slight complementarity between solar and wind power generation, thereby requiring battery backup to supplement the deficit.</p> I. B. Maren A. B. Adisa H. Dandakouta R. I. Ejilah Copyright (c) 2024 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 20 1 305 305