ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, ResearchBib, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, JournalTOCs, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, University of Saskatchewan Library,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <span><a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library</a></span></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2490 Analytical, Numerical and Computational Multiscale Modelling Techniques for Heterogenous Materials: A Review <p>This paper reviews the analytical, numerical as well as the computational homogenization multiscale modelling schemes for determining the effective material properties for heterogeneous medium at the macroscopic level. It also looked at the limitations of the analytical homogenization techniques in simulating the effective non linear heterogeneous material behaviours (for example the rapid localization of damage and so on) as well as the advancements of the computational techniques in addressing these limitations. In addition, the possible future trends for the computational technique such as the development of a fully coupled micro-macro computational scheme were also discussed. It was concluded that although, the analytical technique was quite popular and straight forward, its inability to capture rapid localization of damage limited its application and that numerical and computational schemes were able to address these limitations as they relied on the establishment of constitutive relations for the macroscopic problems in a numerical form through which the macroscopic problems were constructed and solved in a nested manner.</p> O. H. Aliyu Copyright (c) 2019 Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri 2019-09-02 2019-09-02 15 3 488 509 Evaluation of Sheanut Shell-Reinforced Automotive Brake Pad <p>For over a century now, asbestos has been used as friction material in the manufacture of brake pads but its use is currently been avoided due to its carcinogenic nature and potential to cause cancer. This study is focused on development of a new brake pad using sheanut shell (SNS) which is an eco-friendly material as the reinforcement and epoxy resin as the binder. Other constituents used are calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3</sub>), graphite and aluminium oxide (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>). Five compositions were formulated with the epoxy resin and reinforcement varied at interval of 5 wt% while CaCO<sub>3</sub>, graphite and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;remain constant at 30, 10 and 10 wt% respectively. The developed brake pads were subjected to compressive, abrasive and water absorption tests while their densities were also measured. The results showed that the compressive strength, abrasive strength and the density of the samples decreased as the reinforcement content increased while the water absorption rate increased as the reinforcement content increased. The value of the compressive strength ranged from 64.88 – 93.04Mpa, wear rate from 3.13 – 6.25mg/m, water absorption from 0.899 – 2.722% and density from 0.764 – 1.487g/m<sup>3</sup>. The result of this research indicates that SNS particles can be used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad production.</p> V. N. Haruna A. S. Abdulrahman M. S. Abolarin R. A. Muriana Copyright (c) 2019 Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri 2019-09-02 2019-09-02 15 3 510 518 Prediction of Density and Viscosity of Biodiesel Fuel from Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Composition <p>Viscosity and density are important properties that qualify biodiesel fuel to serve as an alternative fuel because all other properties directly or indirectly depend on them. The processes involved in determining the viscosity and density of biodiesel are relatively simple and costly and there are discrepancies in the results obtained due to the differences in the oil composition of the feed-stocks used as against the reported cause of experimental errors. This work aimed at theoretically determining and developing relationship between the density and viscosity of different feed-stocks and the fatty acid methyl ester composition at different temperatures.In the study, density and viscosity data of biodiesel fuels and the composition of FAME were collected from literatures. &nbsp;A linear regression analysis was carried out for density and viscosity on the average values of viscosity and density data obtained at different temperatures range (10°C-40°C) of FAME composition. Equations relating density and viscosity with the percentage composition by weight of FAME of biodiesel fuel were developed. Predicted mean values for kinematic viscosity and density were respectively between 4.31 - 5.64 mm<sup>2</sup>/s and 861.67 – 885.66 kg/m<sup>3</sup>. The developed equations were able to predict with up to 97.1% accuracy for viscosity and 98.5% accuracy for density. The developed equations could effectively predict the quality of biodiesel (viscosity and density) from various feedstocks based on FAME compositions.</p> S.O. Jekayinfa A.O. Adebayo M. A. Sulaiman V.O. Ayoola Copyright (c) 2019 Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri 2019-09-02 2019-09-02 15 3 519 533 Effect of Moisture Content on some Engineering Properties of African Mahogany (Afzelia Africana) Seed <p>Some engineering properties of <em>Afzelia africana</em>, namely axial dimensions, one thousand seed mass, surface area, particle density, bulk density, porosity, angle of repose, static and kinetic coefficients of friction, coefficient of restitution and specific heat were determined as a function of moisture content in the moisture range of 6.1 – 32.3% (d.b). Results showed that in the above moisture range, major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the seed increased from 25.4 – 26.2mm, 13.2 – 13.95mm and 10.2 – 11.2mm, respectively. One thousand seed mass, surface area, particle density, porosity, angle of repose, static coefficient of friction, kinetic coefficient of friction and specific heat capacity of the seeds all increased with increase in moisture content. Seed bulk density decreased with increase in moisture content and coefficient of restitution decreased as drop height and moisture content increased. The relationship existing between the engineering properties and seed moisture content, established using regression analysis showed high coefficient of determination. These properties would be useful in the design of <em>Afzelia africana</em>&nbsp;seed handling, storage and processing equipment.</p> N. A. Aviara S. Ekaso Jr O. U. Nwanja Copyright (c) 2019 Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri 2019-09-02 2019-09-02 15 3 534 553