ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2490 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Effect of Shea Nutshell Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Cast Al6061 <p><em>Aluminium Matrix Composites (AMCs) has attracted much interest in aerospace, defence and automotive applications due to its high strength to weight ratio. However, the manufacturing technique, nature and combination of the matrix and reinforcements play a vital role in the success of AMCs. In this study, the mechanical properties of Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) reinforced with shea nutshell ash (SSA) was investigated. Different mix ratio constituting 0%, 5%, and 10% of SSA were used as reinforcement, with the matrix being Al6061 to compound different samples. The metal matrix composites were produced by stir casting technique. Mechanical properties such as Hardness, Tensile, Impact and Microstructure examination of the developed composites were evaluated. The results showed that with increasing % of SSA, the hardness, and impact energy of the composite increased for both 5 and 10%. However, with increasing SSA the tensile strength decreased slightly for both 5 and 10% SSA. The hardness and the impact energy increased by 166.74% and 76.38% respectively as the wt% of SSA varied from 0-10tw%. On the other hand, the tensile test showed a decrease from 115.67 N/mm<sup>2</sup> to 94.52 N/mm<sup>2</sup> as the % of SSA increase from 0-10%; which translates to 18.29% reduction in tensile strength. SSA however promises to be a good reinforcement material for hybrid aluminium matrix composites when the properties desired are hardness and impact energy.</em></p> P. T. Zubairu A. B. Hassan R. A. Muriana N. A. Musa Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 1 8 Effect of Stress and Load Distribution Analysis on an Isotropic Rectangular Plate <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Structural failure is discovered to be attributed to the inability of the designer to determine the structural load (critical load) that causes it. The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model for calculation of the critical lateral imposed load of the plate before deflection reaches the maximum specified limit </em><em>and its corresponding critical lateral imposed load before plate reaches an elastic yield point </em><em>.&nbsp; Total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the static elastic theory of the plate. Direct variation method of analysis was adopted by minimizing the total potential energy obtained to determine the expression for the deflection and shear deformation. By solving the formulated expression, the effect of stress and load distribution analysis of a mild steel rectangular plate with one edge clamped, free at the other and the other opposite edge simply supported (CSFS) are analyzed and discussed.&nbsp; From the established equation, a new model for determination of the critical lateral imposed load of the plate is developed. The result showed that: (i) as the specified thickness of the plate increases, the value of critical lateral imposed load increase (ii) the critical lateral imposed load decrease as the plates span increases. iii) the critical lateral imposed load increase as the plate thickness increases. (iv) increase in the value of the allowable deflection value required for the analysis of the plate reduces the chances of failure of a structural member. It is concluded that the values of critical lateral load obtained by this theory achieve accepted vertical shear stress to the thickness of plate variation and satisfied the transverse flexibility of the condition of the plate while predicting the flexural characteristics for an isotropic rectangular CSFS plate. Numerical comparison was conducted to verify and demonstrate the efficiency of the present theory. The results obtained are in good agreement with those in the literature. This approach is recommended to the practicing engineers as it overcomes the challenges of the conventional practice in the structural analysis/design which involves checking of deflection and shear; the process which is proved unreliable.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> F. C. Onyeka Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 9 26 Nutritional and Quality Assessment of some Irrigated Wheat Genotypes in Nigeria <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional and end-use qualities of some advanced irrigated Nigerian grown wheat genotypes which was developed and produced by Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria. Standard methods were used to determine the physical, milling, proximate, baking, sensory, functional, rheological and textural qualities of the Nigerian grown wheat. The result showed that grain physical characteristics of the eleven irrigated wheat genotypes were statistically significant. Flour extraction differed significantly from 66.1-79.6% in the irrigated wheat genotypes. Three irrigated genotypes namely, Florkwa-2, Soonot 5, and Hubara-3 had the highest flour extraction rate with flour yield above 75%. Proximate flour quality indicated significantly higher protein content in Hubara (15.2%), Pastor-2 (15.8%), Kauz (16.2%), Soonot-5 (15.8%), while Katila-17 had higher carbohydrate (73.2 %) than Hubara-1. The results for dough and bread functional and textural qualities further showed that Attila-7, Katilla17, Angi-2 and Soonot-5 were superior to the other genotypes, and comparable to the standard imported flour. However, bread sensory evaluation gave the standard flour higher score rating. Therefore, the nutritional and end use quality indicated that Nigerian grown wheat had properties suitable for bread production. The wheat genotypes namely Soonot -5 and Attila-7, among the other irrigated genotypes used in this study, were rated higher in bread baking quality and were even comparable to the standard imported flour which indicated that Nigerian grown wheat can be used to produce bread</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> F. Abubakar A. Zigla Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 27 34 Production, Proximate Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Cereal- Legume Based Infant Food <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>In this study, a cereal-legume based infant food was formulated from millet, malted millet, cowpea, soybeans, and groundnut. The grains used were blended into four infant formulations of different ratios namely: Formulation 1 (70% millet + 30% soybean), Formulation 2 (65% millet 4- 30% soybean + 5% malt), Formulation 3 (70% millet + 20% cowpea + 10% groundnut) and Formulation 4 (65% millet 4- 20% cowpea + 10% groundnut + 5% malt). Standard methods of analysis were used to determine the moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, ash, pH, titrable acidity (TA), total sugar and bulk density contents for the different formulations; whereas the carbohydrate was computed by difference. Each of the samples from the formulations produced was cleaned, toasted, and milled together. The infant formulations were given to 120 mothers residing within Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri and Usmanti area, which is close to Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri. The prepared infant formulations were made into slurry with boiled water and given to the mothers in order to serve their children when slightly cooled.&nbsp; A 9-point hedonic scale was used in the sensory evaluation of the products. Results obtained showed that the moisture content ranged from 4.4 to 6.5%, ash&nbsp; from 1.5 to 1.9%, protein from 13.6 to 22.1%, carbohydrate from 68.6 to 75.5% and fat from 2.3 to 4.9%; whereas the pH and TA values ranged from 5.5 to 5.6, and 0.68 to 0.74, respectively,&nbsp; while the total brix sugar value ranged from 14.2 to 29.8. The results for sensory evaluation indicated that the cereal-legume based formulations were generally accepted by the mothers for their babies in all the parameters determined. The study indicated that Formulations 3 and 4 had the highest scores for overall acceptability.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> F. Abubakar A. Zigla Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 35 42 AC-DC Solid-State Conversion and Power Factor Correction using Thyristor-Based Static Var Compensator <p><em>This paper presents AC-DC solid states converters with thyristor-based static Var compensator in power factor correction. There is need for solid-state ac–dc converters to improve power quality in terms of power factor correction, reduce total harmonic distortion at input ac mains and precisely regulate dc output. AC-DC converters operating in continuous-conduction mode have become popular because of reduced electromagnetic interference levels resulting from their utilization. The method employs the principle of interleaved converters, as it can be extended to a generic number of legs per winding of the autotransformers and high-power levels. The practical analysis of the converter is then plotted using a Simulink model of Matlab while a comparison of power factor and efficiency with relative to the load is drawn with Steady-State and Dynamic Performance of the Static Var Compensator (SVC). An experimental prototype load varied between 400W to 1 KW is implemented to validate the work. The results obtained indicates that when the output loads were 53KW, 135KW, 270KW, 470KW and 900KW, the efficiency were 55%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 97% respectively. These results confirmed that there was improvement in the power factor and efficiency with increase in the load.</em></p> E. U. Udo L. I. Oborkhale C. C. Nwaogu A. O. Amadi Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 51 60 Effect of Compaction Pressure and Biomass Type (Rice Husk and Sawdust) on Some Physical and Combustion Properties of Briquettes <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>In this study, a simple manually operated briquetting machine suitable for use in rural community with no access to electricity supply was fabricated. A three (3) tone hydraulic jack and a pressure gauge were installed to allow for pressure variation. Some physical and combustion properties such as the compressed density, shatter index, hydrophobicity, combustion rate and ignition time of the produced briquettes were determined at the three (3) different compaction pressures of 420.4&nbsp; kN/m<sup>2</sup> , 525.5&nbsp; kN/m<sup>2</sup> and 630.6&nbsp; kN/m<sup>2</sup> . Rice husk (RH), sawdust (SD) and composite briquettes of rice husk and sawdust (RH/SD) were produced using cassava starch as a binder. The developed biomass briquetting machine had a minimum and maximum production capacities of 20 kg/hr and 30 kg/hr respectively. The results showed that the physical properties improved at an increasing compaction pressure. All the produced briquettes at different compaction pressures from the different biomass exhibited over 90% shatter index while the briquette produced from RH at compaction pressure of 525.5 kN/m<sup>2</sup> had the highest combustion rate. The RH/SD briquette moulded at compaction pressure of 630.6 kN/m<sup>2</sup> had the least combustion rate. The ignition time of the briquettes increased with increasing compaction pressure from 1.28 to 1.58. However, this study found that the RH biomass briquette exhibited a superior solid fuel quality property compared to the other briquette samples. Therefore, this study recommends the RH briquette as a sustainable source of solid biofuel</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> M. Aliyu I. S. Mohammed H. A. Lawal S. M. Dauda A. A. Balami M. Usman L. Abdullahi M. Abubakar B. Ndagi Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 61 70 Systematic Layout Planning Approach in Process Layout Design for Processing Dehydrated Tomatoes <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This study was conducted to determine an effective design for the processing of dehydrated tomatoes. The study proffer solutions to huge losses Nigeria encounters as a result of poor postharvest handling across the fruits and vegetables value chain. Despite the huge contributions of agriculture (vegetables) to Nigeria’s economic growth, postharvest losses stands at $9 million with 50% losses in fruits and vegetables as a result of their perishable nature. Systematic layout planning (SLP) approach was used in designing the process layout for dehydrated tomatoes. The design approach was used to serve as an improvement layout and also as a new design for processing of dehydrated tomato plant, with estimated 5% material losses during processing, average temperature for dehydration as 65<sup>o</sup>C, plant production time of 748.99 minutes/day, a throughput capacity of 10 tons/day is achievable. Additionally, the design was validated using computer simulation and the results obtained from the simulation analysis indicated that the method can be used to optimize process planning for several production processes of dehydrated fruit and vegetables.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> N. H. Abdulhakeem I. D. Muhammad I. M. Dagwa Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 71 82 Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposite Produced from Corn (Zea mays): Comparison of Plasticizers Effects on Mechanical Properties <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>The excessive reliance on plastic materials made from fossil-fuel based and its ineffective waste management leads to environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. This study examined the production and testing of bio-composites from Gmelina Arborea wastes and thermoplastic starches as a polymer matrix. Particles of G. Arborea sawdust were obtained from a local sawmill while dry powdered corn starches were sourced from the chemicals market, Ojota, Lagos, Nigeria. Bio-composites were produced by mixing 40 g of corn starch, glycerol/sorbitol, and fractions of prepared G. Arborea (650µm particle sizes) fibre at 0 to 20% (wt/wt of fibre to polymer matrix) were added. The slurries were poured into a mould in accordance with ASTM D638 for tensile strength test samples. The results revealed that the thermoplastic starches, particle sizes, plasticizers, and wood fibre loading significantly affected the tensile strengths, tensile modulus, elongation at break of the bio-composites. Composites produced exhibited tensile strengths values range of 0.35 to 1.75 MPa, modulus of elasticity of 3.10 to 22 MPa, while there was a gradual reduction in elongation at break with a range of 127.4% to 111%. Sorbitol-corn starch generally recorded higher tensile properties of between 1.65 to 1.75 MPa tensile strength than those produced with glycerol plasticizer which ranged between 0.35 to 0.45 MPa as fibre loading increases. It is clear that sorbitol-plasticized bio-composite gives higher values in mechanical strengths when compared to that produced from glycerol.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> B. D. Odugbose O. O. Adefisan H. O. Adeyemi O. T. Opafola O. B. Olatunde Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 83 90 Sensitivities of some Reference Evapotranspiration Models to the Key Climatic Variables in Northeastern Nigeria <p><em>Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) models are fundamental tools in decision-making in agricultural water management. They have potential spacio-temporal variations due to climatic variability that challenges their individual reliability in decision-making. The sensitivities of five ETo models were examined using the factor perturbation simulation approach (FPSA). The examined models were Penman-Monteith (PM), Hargreaves-Samanni (HS), Blaney-Criddle (BC), Jensen-Haise (JH) and Thornthwaite (TW) to alteration of climatic variables (wind speed (U2), maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and Solar radiation (Rn). The study utilized ten years meteorological data obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) offices in Maiduguri between (2002-2011) for Borno State, Potiskum between (2005-2014) for Yobe State and from the Upper Benue River Basin Development Authority, Yola (UBRBDAY) between (2005-2014) for&nbsp; Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe, and Bauchi states respectively.&nbsp; Thus covering the entire northeastern region of Nigeria. The region was fractionalized in to three zones namely Borno State (zone A), Yobe State (zone B) and Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe, and Bauchi States (zone C). The results from zones A and B showed some distinctive similarities. Additionally, Blaney-Criddle, Hargreaves-Samanni and Jensen-Haise models outperformed Thorntwaite model, signifying that Thornwaite model is not suitable for application in this region. On an annual average, PM model was most sensitive to U2 and least sensitive to Tmean. BC model was highly sensitive to n/N with sensitivity coefficient (S.C.) of 3.640 in Borno and 3.611 in Yobe, and it was least sensitive to RH. The temperature difference (Tmax-Tmin) was found to have affected HS more than Ra. The Thorntwaite model was most sensitive to solar radiation. Similarly, it was observed that U greatly influenced the performances of the studied ETo models.&nbsp; For accurate and reliable output from any ETo model, emphases need to be placed on accurate measurement, documentation and systematic handling of the climatic variables and calibration.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. M. Dibal A. U. Bashir M. M. Haruna N. A. Abubakar Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 17 1 91 102