ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA en-US ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 1596-2490 <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> Optimizing Energy Utilization in Unequally Spaced Linear Array for Smart Antenna <p><em>Radiation in the form of unwanted patterns, energy wastage and reduction is caused by high side lobe levels in a radiation pattern. This, in turn, affects the overall performance of the antenna. The purpose of this work is to improve the performance of a smart antenna by optimizing the radiation pattern using the genetic algorithm. Optimal antenna parameters that would minimize side lobe level were obtained using genetic algorithm. Simulations were carried out to determine the impact of the increase in inter-element spacing on array factor and beamwidth using the optimal antenna parameters. The optimal arrangement of inter-element spacing and number of elements in unequally spaced antenna elements were then considered. The array factor model for a uniform linear array of elements was used to obtain the optimum weights that would give the desired radiation pattern with reduced side lobe level. Results for the unequally spaced linear arrays revealed that non-tapered arrangement among all the possible configurations gave the best improvement in the side lobe level. The outcome of this improvement is an optimized radiation pattern which is expected to aid the reduction of radiated power wasted in the side lobes of linear arrays in antenna systems.</em></p> T. O. Fajemilehin J. F. Opadiji S. A. Olatunji Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 231 242 Computational Model of Artificial Neural Networks and its Applications in Data Mining <p><em>Data remain a very important ingredient required by any organization to make informed decision as it affects operations. Companies have been collecting data from various sources over the decades bringing about a very large volume of data warehouse. Unfortunately, most organizations build databases which are redundant and never used for any meaningful thing. While few companies use the data collected in their databases when taking strategic decisions others barely do same. However, for an organization to immensely derive benefits from the massive data warehouse, there is the need for an effective and efficient means of analysing the data with a view to extracting meaningful knowledge that is sufficient to achieve organizational goal. To achieve this, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique through the concept known as data mining is presented. The paper reviewed artificial neural network technique for data mining, examines the computational model behind this technique and analysed its use and application as a predicting or forecasting tool. Results shows that ANN’ has capability in data management, analysis and able to provide desirable knowledge for management decision making processes. It is therefore recommended that data mining tools like ANN and others be applied to organization’s databases which hitherto have not been minned in order to provide management with intelligence for decision making</em></p> J. Abah E. S. Alu A. E. Chahari Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 243 254 Design and Construction of an Arduino - Based Solar Power Parameter-Measuring System with Data Logger <p><em>Accurate monitoring and measurement of solar photovoltaic panel parameters are important for solar power plant analysis to evaluate the performance and predict the future energy generation. There are always challenges of getting such data readily available due to huge amount of money to be spent on state of the art equipment or the purchase of reliable satellite weather data. This study aimed at the development of a cost-effective parameter-measuring system for a solar photovoltaic panel using Arduino microprocessor board. The systems measure five parameters, including voltage, current, light intensity, temperature, and pressure. The hardware circuit was designed to link different sensors with the Arduino board and the measured data were in turn were documented into a computer for further analysis. The accuracy of the constructed device was ascertained by comparing the measured parameters with that of conventional standard measuring instruments which shows good agreement. The measured parameters show that the output energy generation from solar photovoltaic panel largely depends on the solar irradiance and temperature</em></p> I. Oladimeji Y. B. Adediji J. B. Akintola M. A. Afolayan O. Ogunbiyi S. M. Ibrahim S. Z. Olayinka Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 255 268 Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Slicer. <p><em>The traditional method of slicing okra with kitchen knife is labourious, time-consuming and also prone to finger injury. Both traditional method and existing mechanized okra slicer result in damaged and unequal slices of okra which may hinder proper drying of the okra for preservation. An okra slicer was designed, constructed and evaluated. The main parts of the machine were cutting discs, guided removable tray, loading hopper, the transmission system and the supporting frame. In the evaluation of the machine with okra, the performance indices investigated were slicing efficiency, throughput capacity, mechanical damage index and slicing uniformity. The highest slicing efficiency and throughput capacity for okra were 99.88 % and 194.11 kg/h respectively. The least mechanical damage index value of 0.30 % was obtained at a cutting speed of 1200 rpm. The mean slicing uniformity was 93.87 %. The machine developed in this study was able to produce uniform slices of okra of about 3.4 mm thickness. Hence, Industrial production and shelf life of dried okra could be enhanced.</em></p> T. A. Ishola L. Adewole Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 2 269 278 Evaluating the Strength Characteristics of Clay- Gravel Mixtures <p><em>Shear strength is one of the most important soil properties in almost all geotechnical engineering problems. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of gravel on the shear strength of clayey soil.&nbsp;Two clayey soil samples were obtained from a dug pit from different locations in Osogbo, Osun State and the gravels were collected locally. Three different gradations of gravel (2-6mm, 6-12mm, and 12-20 mm) were mixed in a dry state in percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with the collected clay soil respectively. Initially, some physical properties of clayey soil and the gravel, which include specific gravity, particle size analysis, liquid limit and plastic limit, were determined in accordance with BS 1377-3:2018. Consequently, the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Consolidated - Undrained (CU) triaxial compression tests at three different confining pressures of 50, 100 and 150 kN/m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>, with a loading rate of 0.5 mm/min were carried out on the clay-gravel mixtures in accordance with BS 1377 (1990). The results from the CBR test indicated that the CBR value of the clay-gravel mixtures was higher than that of pure clay. The result of shear strength showed that the cohesion and effective angle of internal friction increases as the concentration of gravel increases from 0 to 50%. As the gravel size was increased from 6-12mm, effective cohesion reduces and angle of internal friction increases. &nbsp;It concluded that locally available gravel can be used to improve the strength properties of clayey soil for engineering construction.</em></p> M. T. Akinleye L. O. Salami M. O. Salami Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 279 284 An Overview of Some Hydrological Models in Water Resources Engineering Systems <p><em>Researches in hydrological modelling are aimed to the understanding of the behavior of hydrologic systems in an attempt to make better predictions and to address the major challenges in water resources systems. Hydrological modelling concept is concerned with the relationship of water, climate, soil and land use. Hydrological models are classified either as: conceptual or physical, lumped or distributed, deterministic or stochastic. Hydrological models are the main tools that hydrologist use with different purposes such as water resources management, storm water management, reservoir system analysis, flood prediction, climate change assessment and among others. Many hydrological models have been developed for different purposes. The methodology for using hydrological models include: definition of the problem and specifying the objectives, studying the data available, specifying the economic and social constraints, choosing a particular class of hydrological models, selecting a particular type of model from the given class, calibrating and validating the model, evaluating the performance of the model, and finally using the model for the specified purpose. Some recently developed, frequently used, and powerful hydrological models including WEAP, SWMM, HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, and HEC-ResSim were herein assessed taking into cognizance their applications in solving challenges in water resources engineering systems.</em></p> U. A. Ibrahim S. Dan’azumi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 285 292 Performance Improvement of an Indirect Solar Dryer with Single Axis Manual Tracking System and Angular Simulation of the Flat Plate Collector Reflectors <p><em>The need of food preservation cannot be over-emphasised. Crops need to be processed and preserved in times of their abundance to ensure for life and specie sustainability in times of scarcity. Flat plate collectors (FPCs) are often made fixed and the positions of reflectors used on them are not normally specified; in this paper, a report of an experimental test of an indirect solar dryer whose FPC is operated manually in a single axis to track the sun is presented. To avoid incurring extra cost on the existing design, the FPC was rather made to be operated manually instead of the automation process. Using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and the TRNSYS 16 softwares, the angular positions of reflectors placed east and west on the FPC were simulated for the first quarter months of the year of the experiment – this included the month of the test. This is to ascertain the best positions for the reflectors in other to achieve maximum insolation. For the month of the test, March, the angular positions of the reflectors placed east and west of the FPC were found to be 40° and 80° respectively relative to the horizontal plane. The performance of the solar dryer in terms of the percentage moisture loss, drying rate, collector efficiency and drying efficiency was evaluated when the FPC was fixed and when it was made to track the sun and the results obtained there from were compared. In comparison, it was found that the dryer tested by manually tracking the sun increased the total percentage moisture loss by 5.11%; the total drying rate by 2.10×10</em><em><sup>-5</sup></em><em>&nbsp;kg/s; the average collector efficiency by 3.92% and the overall drying efficiency by 2.0% as compare to when the FPC was fixed, i.e. not tracking the sun. The indirect solar dryer with the ability to manually track the sun in a single axis using the meteorological conditions of Zaria, Nigeria was therefore found to have increased the performance of the system dryer as compare to when tracking of the sun was not done.</em></p> I. Ajunwa D. S. Yawas D. M. Kulla M. B. Abdullahi I. U. Ibrahim M. Iorpenda Jnr. Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 293 308 Capacity and Performance Assessment of Wurukum Roundabout in Makurdi Metropolis: A Comparative Study using ARCADY and SIDRA INTERSECTION Software <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Following the recent public outcry over delays and long queues at the Wurukum Roundabout Makurdi due to increase in travel demand at the road intersection, it is not certain if the performance of the roundabout is satisfactory based on engineering specifications and judgment. Therefore, simulation of the 5-arm at-grade intersection was carried out using Assessment of Roundabout Capacity and Delay (ARCADY) and the Signalised (and unsignalised) Intersection Design and Research Aid (SIDRA INTERSECTION) Software. The geometric dimensions of the roundabout were measured and manual traffic counts were used to obtain average travel demand matric from the morning (8:30 – 9:30 am) and evening (4:30 – 5:30 pm) peak periods, and heavy vehicle proportion of Origin-Destination (O-D) flows on the roundabout. Simulation models of the Wurukum roundabout were built using ARCADY and SIDRA INTERSECTION software to measure its capacity and performance based on key parameters such as Level of Service (LOS), average geometric delay and queue length among others. Though significant variations were observed among estimated performance indices, results obtained from the simulated models and statistical analysis (test of hypothesis using Chi-square test) indicated that the roundabout operates at failed state classified as LOS F at its present condition. Recommended strategies to improve the capacity and performance of the roundabout included any of the following; construction of a fly-over bridge connecting the Northern and Southern approaches as permitted by site physical features, signalisation of the roundabout with traffic signs, proper pavement markings and adjustment of its geometric features, or redesign and construction of road network within Makurdi metropolis to divert and reduce traffic demand on the roundabout.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. T. Adeke A. Etika A. A. Atoo Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 309 320 Investigation of Small Hydropower Potential of River Oshin in Kwara State, North Central, Nigeria <p><em>This paper presents the investigation of hydropower potential of river Oshin via Babaloma in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, North Central, Nigeria. The inhabitants of the study area which is a cluster of three off-grid rural communities: Sangotayo, Budo Umoru and Idi Isin lack access to electrical energy despite the huge potential for renewable energy resources most especially, the hydropower potential. Water velocity of the river was measured using Flow Probe FP211 model. The measured water velocity was converted to discharge using relationship between the channel geometry and velocity. Relationship between measured discharge and water level was used to develop rating equation for the river. Net head was estimated using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) embedded in ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.3) software. The results revealed that the average water level and discharge were high in the month of May through November with discharges varying between </em><em>3.48 to 11.90 m</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>/s</em><em>&nbsp;while water levels ranged between </em><em>0.79 to 1.84 m. </em><em>The relationship between the water level and discharge revealed a correlation coefficient of </em><em>0.99 with positive upward trend. &nbsp;</em><em>The design flow of 4.63 m3/s was determined from the flow duration curve (FDC) while the net head was estimated as 7.62 m. The hydropower potential of the river at the sub-basin 9 was estimated as </em><em>363.36 kW which is in the range of mini hydropower plants (MHP). </em><em>Annual energy generation from the river is estimated as 2624482.08kWh. T</em><em>he estimated hydropower potential can satisfy the present and future electricity needs of the inhabitants of the cluster of the three rural communities under consideration.</em></p> A. S. Oladeji M. F. Akorede A. A. Mohammed A. G. Adeogun A. W. Salami Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 321 336 Hydrogeological and Engineering Investigations of Gully Sites in Zing and Environs, Northeastern Nigeria <p><em>The research area is characterized by problems of gully erosion which have resulted in the destruction of roads and uprooting trees of economic importance. Reduction in the area of arable and other agricultural land, which become divided into smaller parcels and leads to increased farming cost. Hydrogeological and engineering investigations were conducted in Zing and environs, Taraba State of Nigeria to characterize the rock materials that aid gully erosion in the area. The methods involve three (3) stages, reconnaissance survey, detailed field mapping and laboratory analysis. The area is underlain by porphyritic granite and Biotite granite. The geologic structures include fractures, dykes, and veins which trend NNW to SSE, NW-SE and NNE to SSW. The results of geotechnical parameters indicate that the plastic limit ranges between 0 to 24.2%, liquid limit ranges from 20.1% to 43.9%, plasticity index ranges between 11.2 to 19.7%. The coefficient of uniformity ranges between 4.2 and 11.5 while the coefficient of curvature ranged between 0.53 and 1.99. The optimum moisture content was from 8.3 to 9.8%, while maximum dry density is from 1.75 to 1.91mg/m³. The angle of internal friction was between 28° to 40°, while the cohesion is between 0 to 54KN/m². The statistical grain size methods gave hydraulic conductivity values ranging from 2.35 x 10</em><em><sup>-3</sup></em><em>m/s to 8.64 x 10</em><em><sup>-5</sup></em><em>m/s. The hydraulic head distribution map indicates that the gully sites are located in the discharge areas. The discharge areas are characterized by high hydrostatic pressure which decreases effective stress and in turn reduces the shear strength of materials, enhance, internal erosion in form of piping and cave ins in the discharge areas. From the results of the study, recommendations such as sand mining/excavation along the rivers should be avoided, ridging perpendicular to river bank are reduced, dumping of refuse on the river channels and floodplains should be discouraged and houses should not be constructed along the river banks</em></p> B. A. Ankidawa J. M. Ishaku S. P. Ahmadu Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 337 350 Geological Setting and Solid Mineral Potentials of Southern Borno, Northeastern Nigeria <p><em>This research work has principally succeeded in updating the geological map of Southern Borno and brought out zeolite as one of the prominent solid minerals to work on. The field mapping of the area constituting of Askira Uba, Bayo, Biu, Chibok, Damboa, Gwoza, Hawul, KwayaKusar, and ShaniLocal Government Areas indicate the occurrence of basement and sedimentary rocks. The crystalline rocks comprises of migmatites, gneisses, granites and basaltic rocks, dominantly occurring in Gwoza, AskiraUba, Chibok, Biu and Hawul, whereas the sedimentary formations cover KwayaKusar, Shani, Bayo and Damboa with outcrops of Cretaceous-Quaternary sediments comprising Bima Formation, Gongila Formation, Fika Shales, Gombe Sandstone, Kerri Kerri Formation and Chad Formation. Mineralogical evaluation of the Basement Complex rocks indicate the occurrences of feldspars, quartz, micas and ornamental stones, with the basalts chiefly hosting zeolite and quality gemstones (aquamarine, corundum, amethyst, tourmaline and topaz). The zeolites are typical of chabazite variety mostly developing from feldspathoid associated with mafic igneous/basic volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous-Quaternary sediments present quality clays, kaolinite, diatomite, trona and bentonite industrial minerals.</em></p> S. Baba B. Shettima H.I. Kamale Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 351 362 Characterization of Soils in East And West Zones of Kano River Irrigation Project, Nigeria <p><em>The relationship between clay composition and on organic matter content, Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity, bulk density and location of soils in a different part of the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) was studied by taking soil samples from forty (40) sectors. Sampling was done from the depth of 0-45 cm with soil auger, digger, a wooden plank and core samplers. Particles size analysis has shown that the percentage of clay varies from the range of 22.12% to 5.4% as observed in Raje and Butalawa respectively. The texture in most of the sectors was dominated by sandy loam. The organic matter (OM) content is typical of agricultural topsoil as all the sectors have organic matter within the range of 1–6%. Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.452 indicates that the relationship between % clay and Bulk density was more of a non-linear relationship than linear. The Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.876 between % clay content of the soil in all the sectors and saturated hydraulic conductivity represents a strong negative relationship between the variables, as % clay content increases, the strength of Sat. hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease. The % clay has no relationship with location of sectors based on the correlation analysis. The Pearson and Spearman coefficients between % Clay content and % OM were 0.407 and 0.473 respectively and this represent a positive relationship between the variables. It was recommended that organic matter content, saturated hydraulic conductivity and bulk density can be used as one of the determinant variables in the development of a model aimed at predicting the % clay of soils in KRIP. Application of organic manure and fertilizer to improve soil productivity and buffering capacity was also recommended due to low organic matter content.</em></p> D. Mohammed M. M. Maina I. Audu I .Y. Tudun Wada N. K. Nasiru Abhishek Raj Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 363 374 Microstructure and Thermal Analysis of Brake Pads Developed from Asbestos-Free Materials <p><em>This study was conducted on developed asbestos-free brake pad using coconut shell and seashell as fillers. The use of hazardous reinforcement like asbestos fiber in friction materials is being avoided because of its carcinogenic effects. Rule of mixture technique was utilized during sample formulation and a weight percent of 52% filler material, 5% friction modifier, 8% abrasive and 35% binder were utilized for production. &nbsp;A multi-response optimization technique (grey relational analysis) was used to obtain an optimal process parameter of moulding pressure (14 MPa), moulding temperature (140</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ºC), curing time (8 minutes) and heat treatment time (5 hours) for coconut shell-filled brake pad and moulding pressure (14 MPa), moulding temperature (160</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ºC), curing time (12 minutes) and heat treatment time (1 hour) for seashell-filled brake pad. Thermal analysis of commercial and optimized samples shows that the commercial brake pads possesses a better thermal stability compared to the optimized formulated brake pad samples with the coconut shell-filled samples showing the least thermal resistance. Also, microstructure analysis of the impact fractured surfaces of the commercial, seashell and coconut shell-filled brake pad was conducted using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that compare the commercial and seashell-filled samples, there were more uniform distribution of the resin in the coconut shell-filled composite leading to an improved bonding and closer inter- packing distance between its constituent particles and the epoxy resin. It was also revealed that the commercial brake pad possessed a higher thermal stability as the components were not noticeably degraded at temperatures at which the coconut shell and the seashell filled brake pads showed appreciable degradation.</em></p> J. Abutu S. A. Lawal R. A. Lafia-Araga M. B. Ndaliman M. A. Oluleye Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 375 386 Evaluating the Potential of Microorganisms in Bioremediation of Lead Polluted Soil <p><em>This study evaluated and compared the abilities of indigenous Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp. for treating lead polluted soil. &nbsp;The organisms were inoculated into the contaminated soil samples prepared with the optimum values of screened determinant factors and experimented on 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 56 days respectively for lead ion residual concentration using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Bacillus sp. showed greater remediation strength than Micrococcus sp. The results show that Bacillus sp. attenuated the Pb initial concentration from 150.74 mg/kg to control level in 40 days while Micrococcus sp. achieved that in 48 days. The 56th day residual concentrations and removal efficiencies were 81.43 mg/kg and 46% for Bacillus sp., and 86.91 mg/kg and 42.34% for Micrococcus sp. The removal rate was higher for Bacillus sp. (-0.0715 d</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>) than for Micrococcus sp. (-0.0744d</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>); and the remediation process was transport controlled. This information will be useful for remediation programs; and it will serve as a reference material for future research.</em></p> E. Atikpo N. I. Ihimekpen Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 387 394 Adsorption and Thermodynamics Studies of Corrosion Inhibition on Carbon Steel using Pumpkin Pod Extract (Telfairia occidentalis) <p><em>In this study, the inhibition effect of ethanolic extract of pumpkin pod (Telfairia occidentalis) &nbsp;on the corrosion of carbon steel in acidic medium was investigated using weight loss method at 308K -</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>348K. The energy of activation, adsorption and thermodynamics parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibb's free energy were evaluated from the results of temperature studies. The activation enthalpy of corrosion process increases from 28.782kJ/mol to 62.678kJ/mol. As the temperature increased, the inhibition efficiency decreased. The adsorption of pumpkin pod extract on carbon steel was found to best fit Langmuir, and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The activation energy of adsorption and Gibb’s free energy values indicated an endothermic and strong spontaneous adsorption of the pumpkin pod extract on the surface of carbon steel respectively. Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses showed that Pumpkin pods (Telfairia occidentalis) extract protected the surface of the metal from corrosion by forming a protective layer on the metal surface.</em></p> A. O. Okewale A. T. Adebayo Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 395 406 Twin Synchronous Motor Grinding Mill Drives: Performance Comparison of Two Options <p><em>The major challenge of twin synchronous motor drives, as seen in the large grinding mills of the mineral and cement industries are motor overheating and gear wearing, due to certain inevitable manufacturing errors/tolerances on the gear which prevents the two motors from sharing the mill load equally. This paper models a typical gear-driven grinding mill load which accommodates the manufacturing error located on the girth gear circumference, and applies it to two twin synchronous motor drive configurations, namely two three-phase series-connected six-winding synchronous motors (Drive A) and two conventional three-phase synchronous motors (Drive B). The motor equations were mentioned, and the drives simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Results obtained for the two configurations were compared. It was observed that while the risk of motor overheating was removed in Drive A, it was obvious in Drive B. However there is a risk of motor shaft breakage due to the mechanical coupling of the motors</em></p> I. K. Onwuka G. C. Diyoke O. A. Nwaorgu J. O. Matthew E. S. Obe Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 407 414 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Clay and Drop-Off of Ceiba Pentandra (Kapok) Plant Wool Mixture <p><em>This study is aimed at the investigation of the effects of the addition of clay to drop-off of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) plant wool on the thermal and mechanical properties of the materials produced. Because of the considerable increase in the use of insulations in many heat devices, process and systems, and dependence on imported insulations, the need to process natural fibre insulations to form rigid or semi-rigid material using appropriate and sustainable binding material cannot be over emphasized. For this study, Kapok wool and clay mixture were investigated. Five samples were prepared: Sample A was 100% Kapok wool while samples B, C, D, and E were mixture of Kapok wool and Clay in water with varying percentage of clay quantities (Kapok to Clay ratio; B 2:1, C 2:1.5, D 2:2.5, E 2:3.5). The samples were prepared into cylindrical shapes, compressed and dried. The Thermal conductivity meter on Armfield Heat transfer equipment was used to find the thermal conductivity of each sample, while the thermal diffusivity and thermal resistivity of samples were determined using appropriate formula. Universal Testing Machine (Model: FS 50AT) was used to determine the stress at Yield and Young Modulus of elasticity for samples B, C, D, and E. Results show that the density of sample increases with increase in clay content. Thermal conductivities of the samples after the addition of clay ranges between 0.027 (W/mK) and 0.013 (W/mK). Reversed was the case for Thermal Resistivity, the value of thermal resistivity first decreases with addition of clay content (sample B) and then started increasing with increased clay content in the samples, and the values range from 37.037 to 76.923mKW</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>. &nbsp;Thermal diffusivity of sample decreases from 1.2762 x10</em><em><sup>-3 </sup></em><em>m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>/s to 0.2810 x10</em><em><sup>-3</sup></em><em>&nbsp;m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>/s with increasing clay content. Results also show that the Stress at Yield of samples range from 0.012 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;to 0.022 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;while the Young Modulus of elasticity range from 0.113 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;to 0.222 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>. Kapok wool – Clay combination of ratio 2:3.5 (Sample E) have the highest value of thermal resistivity and lowest thermal diffusivity, though with high density, which suggests it to be the best among samples in the study for insulation purposes. The products are recommended for use as insulations of thermal storage for medium temperature applications.</em></p> A. T. Abdulrahim S. Abdulkareem S. A. Abdulraheem W. J. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 415 422 Basic Constitutive Equations in Elasto-Plasticity – A Review <p><em>The present paper reviews the constitutive equations of engineering materials in the elasto-plastic regime. Here the plastic flow rules, strain rate, yield function, overstress function as well as evolution equations for the internal parameters are discussed. Similarly, the implementation of the elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model in a standard finite element code is also discussed and it has been concluded that an appropriate choice of material model is key in accurately simulating the behaviour of an engineering material to applied loading. It is also recommended that the appropriateness of the selected constitutive response is crucial for mimicking precise the material behaviour.</em></p> O. H. Aliyu Copyright (c) 2020 ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 16 2 423 434