ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> (Prof. N.A. Aviara) (Engr. S.K. Oyeniyi) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Corrosion inhibition of Polyalthia longifolia leaves extract in 1m HCl solution on mild steel <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Corrosion is a very common phenomena in the manufacturing as well as chemical process industries. Corrosion has generated wide amount of interest worldwide because of its potential hazards to process equipment and machineries; which often leads to associated downtimes as well as adverse economic and safety consequences. The use of inhibitors is one of the most practical and efficient technique of protection against corrosion. In this work, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of polyalthia longifolia leaves extract in 1M HCl solution on mild steel surface was investigated using the standard gravimetric (weight loss) method. The results indicate that the extract could serve as a good green inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentrations. For the mild steel samples investigated in this work, about 70% inhibition efficiency was achieved with only 1.0 ml extract solution per 40 ml of 1.0 M HCl solution after five (5) days; and under same conditions, increasing the amount of extract by fivefold yielded only 10% increase in the inhibition efficiency for the same test period. The inhibition efficiency was also found to significantly increase with time of exposure for the first 48 hours of the experiment, but the increase was rather gradual at later times for all levels of extract concentrations</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br><br></p> Abdu Zubairu, Abdullahi S. B. Gimba, Abubakar B. Waziri Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Residential exposure of electromagnetic fields radiated from mobile base stations and broadcast transmitters <p><em>This paper presents the cellular base station electromagnetic radiation and its effects on human body. Due to technological advancement, human life is subjected to high level of electromagnetic emission. The effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is recognized from health risk associated with exposure to it. The research work was performed in two Communication companies, namely COMPA and COMPB located in Owerri, Imo State, in two geographical areas of Onitsha – Owerri Road and Owerri Municipal. The study was conducted to ascertain power density measurement using SureCall signal meter in 72 houses within a distance of 200 - 2500 meters from the base stations. Results obtained revealed that the average cumulative power density at different distances of 200m, 500m, 800m, 1200m, 1700m, and 2500m were 1.54005627200µW/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.319382647200µW/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.171062647200µW/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.139667752800µW/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.028675447200µW/m<sup>2</sup>, and 0.001429063200µW/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. These results were compared with International Standard and World Health Organization (WHO) allowable limits. In conclusion, it was observed that the power density varied with distance from tower and is highest at the shortest distance. Power density also varied from place to place depending on the infrastructure obstruction, like buildings or internal obstructions.</em></p> E. U. Udo, E. B. Maduka, D. O. Okey Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 New refined shear deformation theory effect on non-linear analysis of a thick plate using energy method <p><em>This study presents the application of a new refined plate theory in the bending analysis of a thick rectangular plate carrying a uniformly distributed load using the direct energy method. The new refined plate theory which is a combination of trigonometric shear deformation theory and fourth order polynomial displacement function was used to formulate the governing differential equation by employing the principle of elasticity.&nbsp; The total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the constitutive relations thereafter the three general governing differential equations for the determination of the deflection and shear deformations rotation along the direction of x and y coordinates were obtained. The coefficient of deflection and shear deformation were derived by subjecting the energy equation obtained to direct variation thereafter the actual deflection, in-plane displacement, normal and shear stresses, moment and stress resultants of the rectangular thick plate were determined by substituting the derived coefficient of&nbsp; coefficient of deflection and shear deformation into the displacement, shear force, moment and stresses deduced. The particular plate boundary condition to be anlysed is free support at the third edge and the other three edges simply supported (SSFS). The result shows that thick plate is the one whose span-depth ratio value is 4 up to 25. The results obtained from this work was compared with those obtained from other refined plate theories with the same support condition and obtained showed good agreement with those in the literature.</em></p> F. C. Onyeka, T. E. Okeke Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Impact of corrosion monitoring techniques on durability assessment in reinforced concrete: A review <p><em>Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures remains a durability issue in structural engineering with the increasing cost of repair and maintenance. The mechanism and factors influencing reinforcement corrosion in concrete with various electrochemical monitoring techniques including non-destructive and destructive techniques have been considered. Also, the roles of sensors have been reviewed to determine the monitoring technique that proved most effective in determining corrosion parameters and more practicable for the assessment of concrete durability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear polarization resistance techniques showed great performance in evaluating corrosion kinetics and corrosion rate respectively while gravimetric weight loss technique provided accurate measurements. No single monitoring technique showed to be the ultimate technique, and this calls for more research work in the development of more dynamic monitoring tools capable of considering all possible corrosion factors in the corrosion monitoring process.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. V. Okenyi , J. K. Alawode Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Experimental investigation of the performance of a household refrigerator using plywood as radiation shield <p><em>This research work investigates the performance of domestic refrigerators. Test were carried out on two configurations of household refrigerators; a conventional refrigerator and a refrigerator that was modified by incorporating a radiation shield. In this work, plywood was used as thermal radiation shield placed between the back of the refrigerator and the condenser and compressor. Pressure gauges were welded to the evaporator inlet and condenser outlet. Thermocouples were attached to the compressor inlet and outlet, condenser outlet and evaporator inlet in order to obtain data from the test. The pressure and temperature data obtained was applied to evaluate the performance of the two systems. With further repeated tests, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigeration systems were determined at normal ambient condition. The highest evaporator temperature obtained for the conventional refrigeration system (CRS) and modified refrigerators system (MRS) were -5<sup>o</sup>C and 0<sup>o</sup>C respectively. Interestingly, an efficiency improvement of about 10% was achieved for the MRS. The result shows a remarkable improvement in the COP of the MRS. Therefore, for a better performance, thermal radiation shield can be recommended to be incorporated in vapour compression refrigeration system.</em></p> U. A. Mukhtar, S. Shodiya, S. A. Abdulrahaman, V. C. Samuel, A. Muhammed, A. Y. Maigida Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Waste to wealth in building materials development: a review of plastic waste in concrete <p><em>Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of post-consumer plastics in the production of concrete. Consequently, a large number of studies reporting the behaviour of concrete containing waste and recycled plastics have been published. These studies have great potential for improving the inherent weakness of concrete, reduction of pressure induced on the environment and creation of employment opportunities for economic development. This paper presents a review of journal publications on the effects of waste and recycled plastic materials on some fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The effects of waste plastic materials on slump, density, compressive strength, tensile/flexural strength and permeability are discussed. It was concluded that Post-consumer plastics can be successfully and effectively utilized to replace conventional concrete. This presents a strong potential for the production of sustainable concrete as well as meeting the goals of sustainable development requiring a waste to resource approach. The study suggests public education and awareness on the prospects of using waste plastic in concrete for economic empowerment among the population.</em></p> I. Anum, O. F. Job Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Application of Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) Technology in Geotechnical and Geo-Environmental Engineering: A Review <p><em>One of the most recent areas of research in geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering is bio-mineralization, a natural process in living organisms, also known as Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation. It is the formation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated solution due to the presence of microbial cells and bio-chemical activities. In the process, microbes secrete metabolic products that reacts with ion in the medium to precipitate minerals. Through this process, soil improvement/remediation have been investigated and proven reliable with minute carbon print as compared to conventional binders. This paper presents an overview on the wide application of Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation in the areas of geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering with the mechanisms and factors influencing its performance explained. The work has also considered both laboratory and field scale researches conducted in these areas. The key contribution of this work is the compilation of different approaches in soil stabilization and remediation, via urease producing microbes, in single source. It also outlined different treatment dosages based on environmental conditions suitable to soil types.</em></p> I. S. Muhammad, B. B. Kurna , B. S. U. Ibn Abubakar Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Comparison of square and circular isolated pad foundations in cohesionless soils <p><em>One of the most commonly used pad foundation types is the square footing, however, there is a necessity to compare its performance and economy with the circular pad foundation which is not often considered. This study focuses on the suitability of the square versus circular isolated pad foundation types in cohesionless soils, from a geotechnical, structural, and construction cost perspective. The square and circular pad foundation types were subjected to three (3) cases, which were: when the foundation footings have equal width or diameter (Case 1), when the foundation footings have an equal axial load capacity (Case 2), and when the foundation footings are restricted to a defined net allowable bearing capacity (Case 3). The factors evaluated in each of these cases were bearing capacity, immediate settlement, structural design, and construction cost. Additionally, a model for estimating the construction cost of reinforced concrete was proposed in this study, and it was used to estimate the construction cost of the reinforced concrete isolated pad foundation types. The results of this research work show that overall, the square isolated pad foundation type will be the better selection for most design and construction considerations,</em></p> O. O. Komolafe, I. O. Balogun, Y. O. Abiodun Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Assessment of Solar Box Cooker (SBC) with Kapok fiber insulator under Maiduguri Weather Conditions <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>This paper presents the construction and performance evaluation of solar box cooker with kapok insulator. The solar cooker offers an economically viable alternative while mitigating environment degradation due to excessive use of biomass/conventional energy sources for cooking purposes. The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS: IS B429) was used to determine the thermal performance parameters of the cooker, where&nbsp; first figure of merit (F1) and second figure of merit (F2) were determined to be F1= 0.132 and F2= 0.58. The cooker thermal efficiency (</em><em>η</em><em>) = 44%, qualifying the cooker to be grade </em><em>“</em><em>A</em><em>”</em><em> according to BIS. The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers for Solar Cooking (ASAE S580.1) was used to determine the cookers cooking power and it was found to be (Ps) =14.7W while the (R2) value was 0.137 coefficient of regression.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> A. T. Abdulrahim, S. Abdulkareem, M. Haruna, M. B. Maina, S. A. Abdulraheem Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Decline in agricultural activity around Lake Chad: Any prospect for restoration? A Review <p><em>Lake Chad that has been an economic hub for centuries has in the last few decades witnessed continued degradation threatening food security and livelihood of the population who depend on the lake for a living. The impact of depletion of the lake is being felt by an estimated 30 million people from the four riparian states, namely: Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. This paper focuses on the causes of low agricultural activity around Lake Chad with particular emphasis on crop production. The paper also highlights the prospects for reviving agricultural activity through implementation of innovative soil management techniques. Analysis of the literature revealed that in addition to devastating effects of violent armed conflict on livelihood conditions in this region, frequent drought, dwindling rainfalls, degraded soils and sparser vegetation cover are among the factors responsible for the low agricultural activity in this region where a large proportion of the population relies on rainfed agriculture. The review revealed that organic farming practices that support biodiversity has the potential for besides improving soil health and reduce pest pressure, also improve crop yields and protect the environment. Furthermore, the use of biofertilizers to reduce the dependence on conventional inorganic fertilizers by farmers offers the means of mitigating the declining soil mineral nutrient reserves in this region. It is envisaged that restoring the lake to its near original state coupled with improving the productivity of the fragile soils will go a long way in addressing the challenges of food insecurity, a major factor stabilizing factor in the area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. B. Alhassan, A. M. Chiroma, A. M. Kundiri, B. Bababe, I. J. Tekwa Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Development of an improved acm scheme for mitigating earth-to-space propagation effects <p><em>Satellite communication is a promising technology due to its ability to serve very large number of users with high data rate services. The communication link experiences propagation losses such as: Path loss, atmospheric losses, rain fading, ionosphere effects (such as scintillation), and other effects which can greatly affect the received signal strength and close the link budget in the worst case. The design of future broadband satellite systems has to be done with the challenge of more complex traffic mix and these harsher propagation conditions which mitigate the performance of the communications link. Link adaptation (LA) has been used in satellite communications applications for evaluating the performance of an adaptive modulation system in the unique space-based propagation environment. Despite the current research on improving satellite system performance, there is still a need to further develop a scheme that mitigates the effect of atmospheric impairments. This work develops an improved adaptive coding and modulation scheme that mitigates earth-to-space propagation effects. The scheme targets maximizing data throughput while staying below a Bit Error Rate (BER) threshold so as to successfully mitigate link impairment in fixed communication systems. Simulation of the work is carried out using MATLAB 2016b and System Toolkit (STK) 11.3</em></p> A. M. S. Tekanyi, R. M. Idris, A. D. Usman, M. Z. Abdullahi , E. E. Agbon Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Effect of elevated temperature on the durability and strength properties of concrete with ground rice husk ash as a partial replacement to cement: a review <p><em>Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time. Cement is an important constituent in the concrete composite; however, its cost is relatively very high, this has impacted in the cost of concrete production and by extension on the cost of housing delivery in Nigeria. Rice husk ash is one of the promising pozzolanic materials that can be blended with Portland cement for the production of durable concrete and at the same time a value-added product. the use of the rice husk ash as partial replacement to cement in concrete not only improve the strength of concrete, protection against cracking, spalling, reduce density and porosity of the concrete. It also reduce the emission of carbon monoxide to the environment which is very dangerous to the atmosphere. The elevated temperature is one of the most harmful effects that cause durability problems in construction; this effect can cause permanent damage in construction and reduce the service life. This paper reviews the work presented by various researchers on effect of elevated temperature on the durability and strength properties of concrete using rice husk ash as partial replacement. From the available literature reviewed, there is a possible research gab in investigating the effect of elevated temperature on concrete with rice husk ash as partial replacement to cement, because most of the researchers have focused on conventional concrete, whereas concrete with rice husk ash as replacement to cement have been recommended for use with a replacement value of 10-20%. The degree of its performance of these recommended replacement needs to be investigated.</em></p> B. Makinta, K. Mohammed, A. Ocholi Copyright (c) 2021 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400