ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2644 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> (Prof. N.A. Aviara) (Engr. S.K. Oyeniyi) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Some Physical Properties of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Relevant in Mechanical Dehulling and Cleaning <p>The properties of acha (Digitaris exilis) are important in the development off efective machines for dehulling and cleaning of the paddy. In this study, some of the relevant crop properties were determined, such as; moisture content, length, width, thickness, size and shape, arithmetic, geometric and equivalent mean diameters, surface area, volume and a thousand weight. Others includes; bulk and solid densities, porosity, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction. The fineness modulus, uniformity coefficient, particle size distribution and terminal velocity were determined for both paddy acha and grains. The properties were determined using standard methods at the moisture content of 10.3% (db) in replicates. The results showed that the length, width, thickness, size of grain, flatness index, thousand grain weight, angle of repose, angle of internal friction, bulk and solid densities were 1.58 mm, 0.90 mm, 0.76 mm, 1.58 mm, 1.65, 0.53g, 24.7<sup>o</sup>, 0.46<sup>o</sup>, 608.01 kg m<sup>-3</sup> and 1131.0 kg m-3 respectively. The terminal velocity, porosity, coefficient of static friction, arithmetic and geometrical mean, equivalent diameters, surface area, volume, fineness modulus (paddy), fineness modulus (grain), particle size distribution (grain), particle size distribution (paddy), uniformity coefficient (grain), uniformity coefficient (paddy) was 3.96 m s<sup>-1</sup>, 46.24, 0.459, 1.127 mm, 1.859 mm, 1.059 mm, 3.36 mm², 3.00 mm<sup>3</sup>, 3.17, 3.00, 0.34, 0.36, 0.63 and 0.60 respectively. Thus, the acha (paddy and grains) can be classified as medium size and spherical in shape. In the sieve analysis of the paddy acha, 99.57 % of the paddy was retained on 0.351 mm mesh while 27.27 % and 61.72 % of the grains were retained on the 0.894 and 0.351 mm meshes. This is indicative of more variability in the grains than in the paddy. The properties show that the paddy separates easily and the grains are easily cleaned from contaminants.</p> I. N. Itodo, P. O. Yusuf, T. K. Kaankuka Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Remediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil Using Vermicompost in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria <p>Vermicompost is the product of the decomposition process using various species of worms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vemicast. This process is called vermicomposting, while the rearing of worms for this purpose is called vermiculture. Adsorption of toxic metals has been achieved using Vermicompost, but there is dearth of knowledge in adsorption of crude oil using Vermicompost. This study brings to knowledge the effectiveness of earthworm waste (vermicompost) use for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soils. The remediation methods adopted were batch and column processes conditions. Characterization of the vermicompost and crude oil contaminated soil were performed before and after the soil washing using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic adsorption spectrometry (AAS). The optimization of washing parameters, using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken Design was performed on the data from laboratory experiments. Machine learning models [Artificial neural network (ANN), Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). ANN and ANFIS were evaluated on the observed and predicted percentage removal of crude-oil using the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and mean square error (MSE)]. Removal efficiency ranged from 29% to 98.9% for batch process remediation and 56% to 92% for column process remediation. Optimum values of the experimental factors were absorbent dosage of 34.53 g, adsorbate concentration of 69.11 (g/ml), contact time of 25.96 (min), and pH value of 7.71, for batch and column processes. Removal efficiency obtained from the multilevel general factorial design experiment ranged from 56% to 92% for column process remediation and 56% to 92% for column process remediation with the same optimum values of factors. Coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) for ANN was (0.9974) and (0.9852) for batch and column process, respectively. This result show strong correlation between the observed and predicted values for batch and column process, respectively, the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) for RSM was (0.9712) and (0.9614), which also demonstrates agreement between observed and predicted values. For the batch and column processes, the ANFIS coefficient of determination was (0.7115) and (0.9978), respectively. Machine learning models appear to be capable of predicting the removal of crude oil from polluted soil using vermicompost.</p> P. O. Ehiomogue, I. I. Ahuchaogu, U. I. Udoumoh Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Arsenic in Groundwater in Monguno, Borno State, Nigeria <p>Arsenic contamination poses a severe health threat in the semi-arid region of North-eastern Nigeria, particularly in Monguno town, Borno State.&nbsp; This study rigorously evaluated groundwater arsenic concentrations in 102 samples from various boreholes across Upper, Middle, and Lower aquifers of the Chad Formation, utilizing the Palintest Digital Arsenator Test Kit. To ensure precision, each water sample underwent analysis twice, totaling 204 tested and analyzed samples. Furthermore, the geographical coordinates of the 102 boreholes were meticulously mapped using QGIS (Quantum Geographic Information System), providing a visual representation and analysis of the arsenic presence. Findings revealed that only 3 samples met the WHO recommended threshold, 56 fell within the 10-50 µg/L range, signifying a low risk, while 43 samples exceeded 50 µg/L, breaching safety limits. Prolonged exposure to high arsenic levels can lead to severe health implications. A comprehensive human health risk assessment considered parameters such as Average Daily Dose (ADD), Hazard Quotient (HQ), and Cancer Risk (CR). Notably, for 43 water sources with arsenic concentrations exceeding 50 µg/L, Hazard Quotient (HQ) values ranged from 1.2 to 5.3, indicating potential health risks. These elevated values underscore potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazards in Monguno. A direct linear relationship was observed between HQ and arsenic concentrations across all samples, reinforcing the correlation. Despite the absence of specific reference values for Monguno, the analogous trend in North Central Nigeria reinforces this observation. Urgent collaborative efforts are imperative for intervention and remediation, emphasizing the need for cooperation between government agencies, non-governmental organizations, research institutions, and the local community. Continuous research and monitoring are vital to understanding arsenic sources and distribution, ensuring the long-term effectiveness of remediation measures, and securing safe drinking water access for the community.</p> I. M. Umar, B. M. Sheriff, B. B. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Maximum Power Point Tracking in Partial Shaded Photovoltaic System using Smell Agent Optimization Algorithm <p>With partial shading conditions, it is essential to acquire Maximum Power Point at which the Photovoltaic systems (PV) operate effectively despite the variation in the cell temperature and incident angle of sunlight rays on the panels. This study explores the use of a Smell Agent Optimization (SAO) algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in partial shaded PV systems. The proposed MPPT system is composed of a PV model, a DC-DC converter model and a control part. The Smell Agent Algorithm (SAA) was adopted in the control part of the MPPT system to implement the optimization algorithm using four different shading patterns (SPs) and to calculate the optimal switching duty cycle of the DC-DC converter. The effectiveness of the proposed system was verified using simulations in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The SAO respectively track maximum values for Power, Voltage and Current as 845.8476 W, 211.7308 V, 3.99492 A while the maximum values for Power, Voltage and Current for Perturb and Observe (P and O) are 845.0465 W, 211.6305 V, 3.993028 A respectively during SP1. The results showed that the SAO algorithm has excellent tracking results in terms of convergence speed, accuracy, power extracted stability, and dynamic response in reaching the optimum point.</p> R. O. Amusat, S. Shodiya, Y. H. Ngadda, D. I. Malgwi Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of Vitamin A in Red Guinea Corn-Millet Mix <p>This study focused on the optimization of vitamin A in guinea corn and millet mix. The concentration of vitamin A was investigated under the following conditions: blending time (1.5 - 5 hours), amount of red guinea corn (10 - 50g) and amount of agro residue (50-100 g) using Box-Behnken design. Statistically significant model (p&lt;0.05) was developed to represent the relationship between the response (concentration of vitamin A) and the independent variables. The model showed a significant fit with experimental data with R2 values of 0.94. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that the concentration of vitamin A was influenced by the blending time, amount of red guinea corn and amount of millet used. Additionally, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the concentration of vitamin A. The results showed that maximum concentration of 98.76 µg/100g for vitamin A was obtained at the optimum production conditions of blending time of 5hours, 49.79g of red guinea corn and 100g of millet. The blend produced at the optimized conditions satisfied the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) specification for recommended safe intake for all age groups, pregnant and nursing mothers.</p> O. Eyide, S. Iweriolor, B. J. Ossai, E. T. Akhihiero, A. A. Olaseinde Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modeling Rainfall-Runoff Relations Using HEC-HMS in an Oil Palm Catchment for Double Rain Events in Labu River Basin of Peninsular Malaysia <p>In order to simulate a single rainfall event that occurred in the Labu catchment on April 7 and August 13, 2015, the HEC-HMS and soil moisture balance models were used. Based on the years that the peat swamp forest was converted into an oil palm plantation, the study plots within the watershed were divided into four plots: 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2010. In this study, two different hydrological models were employed such as the Soil moisture balance model and the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). A rainfall-runoff relationship for the sub-catchment was established using the Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS, coupled with recorded flow and rainfall data. This relationship was calibrated and then validated before being utilized for runoff estimation. The calibrated streamflow from the soil moisture balance model was compared with the HEC-HMS discharge values, which were used as the observed flow. The results show that the calibrated streamflow in the soil moisture balance model agrees with the observed streamflow data in the HEC-HMS. Following the two rainfall occurrences, the two models' respective Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (Ef) values were 0.82 and 0.90 which implies that the observed flow and the predicted flow by the models are correlated and this shows a strong acceptable model performance for model simulation. This also means that the application of the HEC-HMS along with a recorded streamflow data shows the ability of the HEC-HMS model to calculate the streamflow volume in a double storm event at Labu basin.</p> A. R. Adesiji, M. O. Odekunle, J. A. Mangey, B. G. Adeyemo, T. Yaba Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical Modeling of Field Recital of Harrow in Clay – Loam Soil in South Eastern Nigeria <p>This research was carried out to model and optimize the efficiency of disc harrow on clay-loam soil in South – East Nigeria to assist farmers scrutinize and select appropriate harrowing implement reliant on soil type for efficacious and magnificent production. The harrowing operation was conducted at selected effective working widths, operational speeds and cutting depths using 2-gangs tandem disc harrow. The experimental design adopted in the research was a three level – three factor full factorial design. The experiment consists of three factors which were varied at three levels of harrowing depths which include 10, 20, 30 cm; three levels of effective working widths of 60, 120 and 180 cm and three levels of operational speeds (6, 7 and 8 km/hr). Central Composite Response Design which gives 17 test runs was performed for each sample. The results found that the highest field efficiency of 98.50% was obtained when the harrow was operated at the pulverizing depth of 20cm under operational speed of 7 kmh<sup>-1</sup> and working width of 120 cm. The quadratic model equation was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.05) for the prediction of the field efficiency. Additionally, the results show that the coefficient of determination; R<sup>2</sup> for the field efficiency was 0.9139, which indicated adequate correlations among the factors. The Predicted R² of 0.7695 was reliable with the Adjusted R² of 0.8031 which identified excellent interactions between the factors (effective working width, operational speeds and harrowing depths). The adequacy Precision (10.3749) obtained indicated seemly indicator and that the model could navigate the design space. The optimum field efficiency and the desirability of 96.66% and 0.697 were respectively attained at optimum depth of 30 cm, working width of 180 cm and speed of 6.16 kmh-1. Therefore, farm operators can henceforth, evaluate and select the harrow implements using the developed model.</p> C. G. Okeke, O. Oduma Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrochemistry of Surface and Groundwater in Parts of Birnin Kebbi Northwestern Nigeria <p>A hydro-chemical investigation of drinking water sources in Birnin Kebbi Old Town and its environs, in northwestern Nigeria, was carried out to determine the potability and suitability of the groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses. Twenty-three water samples were collected from these communities, and their physical and chemical parameters, such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, and temperature, were evaluated. Both the chemical and heavy metal analyses were conducted at the Multi-User Laboratory, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. The results obtained indicated that physical parameters like TDS and EC and chemical parameters like Mg<sup>2+</sup>,&nbsp;Ca<sup>2+</sup> and HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>2- </sup>are high, while Cr<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Ni, and Pb<sup>2+</sup> have values that are below the NSDWQ recommended limits. While Na<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>,&nbsp;and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>have values far below the NSDWQ set limit, The Schoeller and Piper diagrams show the dominant water type in the study area to be Ca-Mg-HCO<sub>3. </sub>However, the Gibbs plot shows the dominant source of the water to be the precipitation domain due to the dissolution of carbonate rocks, while the Wilcox diagram shows that all the water samples in the study area have low salinity. Application of Nemerow’s pollution index method shows that the majority of the sampling locations displayed high NPI values, especially for Ni<sup>2+</sup> and Pb<sup>2+</sup>. The NPI Ni<sup>2+</sup> values for eleven (11) out of twenty-three samples, making up 47.83%, have NPI values that range from 7.53 to 90.01, making them unsuitable for drinking purposes. The NPI values for Pb<sup>2+</sup> for six (6) samples, making up about 26.09%, have high NPI values that range from 36.37 to 172.56, depicting a high level of pollution.</p> Y. Abdulganiyu, B. S. Oresajo, M. AbdulKarim, O. A. Phillips, H. Ibrahim, T. A. Abdulfatah, H. Yakubu, H. Zainab, M. Sadiya, A. Nasiru, I. Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Estimating the Collapse Point of a Transmission Line in a Developing Power Systems <p>The trouble with a developing national grid is compounded by the fact that the power system supplies power to a vast number of loads which is fed by a number of generating units sometimes far from the load centers. Variations of loads bring about power losses and corresponding increase in the reactive power requirements of the transmission systems. Thus, the paper is aimed at establishing the point of collapse of transmission lines to enable a control system operator to take proactive measures in the event of small/large system disturbances. Voltage collapse proximity indicator is exploited to show that the variations in load close to the maximum load require extremely large amounts of reactive power at the sending end in order to support the increase in load. In the work, it was identified that Katemkpe-Shiroro transmission line is the most critical transmission line contributing immensely for voltage collapse scenarios in Nigeria national grid. Consequently, it ranked first because it has the highest voltage collapse proximity index. Computation involving voltage collapse proximity indicator obtained the collapse point or the knee point as 2.8684. This serves as a criterion that will enable control system expert to take proactive measure before the impending voltage collapse.</p> J. N. Onah, D. U. Onyishi, C. C. Eze, G. A. Ogbahor Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Residents in Correlation to Groundwater Source in Ikenne Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria <p>The study examines the residents’ socio-economic characteristics as correlates of groundwater source in Ikenne Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The objectives addressed in this study are analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the residents; sources of groundwater; and relationship between residents’ socio-economic attributes and groundwater source in the study area.&nbsp; A total of two hundred and seventy-two (272) respondents across all the six political wards of Iperu and Ilisan, were administered using questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using frequency distribution, percentage, ANOVA (it is used to establish if there is significance different between variable), Correlation and Regression. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in socioeconomic background of the residents (p &gt; 0.05) except for educational attainment. It was found that correlation exists between groundwater source and marital status, education, income and occupation with exception of gender. Regression results established that 82 % of variability in groundwater source is predicted by residents’ socioeconomic characteristics. It could be concluded that socioeconomic background of the residents significantly influences their source of groundwater. It is therefore imperative that governments at all levels need to come up with policies and programmes that will enhance peoples’ socioeconomic status, thereby enhancing their ability to provide an improved water source.</p> A. A. Adewunmi, O. P. Akinpelu Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Air Quality of Service Stations in a Built-Up Area: A Case Study of Lagos Metropolis <p>Emissions emanating from commercial facilities in high dense area are subject of concern as more people are being hospitalised or suffering from long term exposure to poor air quality. Thus, there is the need to conduct assessment of air quality and other hazardous emissions in some commercial facilities. This paper presents the air quality index, formaldehyde and environmental emissions emanating from four service stations in Lagos metropolis. Four different filling stations were strategically selected from dense localities and monitored for about 8hrs per day for 30 days. The level of air qualities is assessed respectively for these locations. The data is time-averaged over the period of the data acquisition, and the results are presented. The air quality index for all the service stations were found to be below the recommended threshold by the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The CO, CO<sub>2</sub> and HCHO emissions have similar pattern with respect to all locations monitored. Further analyses of emissions from different stations revealed that there is significant difference in service station B (SS B) from service station D (SS D) for CO<sub>2</sub> emissions at 95% confidence as P<sub>value</sub> (0.04) is less than 0.05. A proportion of 51% of CO<sub>2</sub> can be accounted for by the emission variability in the service stations. However, there is no significant difference in the other emissions patterns at 95% confidence as P<sub>value</sub> is greater than 0.05 (P<sub>value</sub> &gt;0.05) for AQI, CO, HCHO and TVOC emissions. In general, the emissions within the selected built-up areas were found not to sufficiently harm service station workers for short term exposure.</p> A. S. Shote, S. A. Aasa, A. I. Musa Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Acid Leaching on Upgrading Indigenous Low-grade Chromite ore for Iron and Steel Plant Development <p>Low-grade chromite concentrate from the Tunga Kaduka Benue trough region of north-eastern Nigeria is contaminated with iron and aluminium impurities. To transform it into useful material, such impuririties must be removed for it to be useful for the production of special steel and ferrochrome alloys. Consequently, in this study, a Nigerian chromite was treated by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. The influence of leaching duration, acid concentration, reaction temperature, and particle size on the extent of impurities dissolution was determined. From the results obtained, the dissolution of iron and aluminium increases with increasing leaching time, HCl concentration, reaction temperature, and decreasing particle size. Under these conditions, the highest recovery of iron and aluminium was obtained to be 95.54 and 82.51%, respectively. The dissolution kinetics of iron and aluminium was evaluated by shrinking core models. The finding reveals that diffusion through the fluid was the leaching kinetics rate-controlling step of iron and aluminium. The activation energy was found to be 25.33 kJ/mol for iron and 18.42 kJ/mol for aluminium. The residual samples at optimal conditions as analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were found to</p> K. Ayinla, A. A. Baba, R. T. Oyewumi-Musa, B. C. Tripathy, G. A. Anafi, R. K. Dwari Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reservoir Hydrocarbon Volumetric Analysis of Sapele Deep Field, Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria <p>The calculation of hydrocarbon volume in place of Sapele Deep field in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was done by the integration of seismic and well logs data using the petrel software. On average, the entire field has a hydrocarbon pore volume of 90,341.68, STOIIP value of 1,156,970,604.11 BBCF/BBSTB and an ultimate recovery value of 951,966,117.95 MMCF/MMSTB with a primary recovery factor of 0.81 (81%). Petrophysical evaluation reveals that the field on average, has a gross thickness of 268.60m (886.38 ft), net sand thickness of 6.67 m (22.01 ft), porosity value of 0.21 (21%), permeability of 1493.14 mD, shale volume of 0.16, net-to-gross value of 0.51 and water saturation (Sw) of 0.43 (43%). The combination of well log neutron and density log reveals that the study area is made up of both single and double-phase reservoirs.</p> O. J. Airen, B. J. O. Mujakperuo Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Composition Ananlysis of Coconut Shell Powder and Ash for Composite Reinforcement. <p>The use of natural resources which are environmentally friendly to replace the conventional composites materials had been the interest of many researchers lately. Beside the use of natural fibres as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites, the use of fillers made from natural sources such as coconut shell, corn cobs, palm kernel shell, rice husk, has been confirmed to be potential material that can offer some good properties to satisfy the requirements needed for some engineering applications. In this study, the potential of coconut shell powder and coconut shell ash were investigated. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscope was used to determine the chemical compositions of the samples. The results obtained revealed that coconut shell powder and coconut shell ash demonstrated comparable chemical properties to the conventional composites. The presence of some basic elements which are required to produce reinforcement materials with high strength, durability, light weight and corrosion resistance were confirmed. The results obtained revealed that coconut shell powder and coconut shell ash could be used as composites and other polymer matrix that are required for engineering applications</p> M. A. Abba-Aji, E. S. Ameh , M. Shuwa Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Performance Properties of Asphalt Produced from Bitumen Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer <p>Flexible pavements, particularly in urban areas, deteriorate rapidly after construction due to poor workmanship and inadequate drainage facilities. The demand for roads continues to increase. Engineers of the highway system are concentrating on alternative solutions to meet this expanding challenge.&nbsp; Highway system engineers are currently focused on developing alternative solutions in order to address this growing challenge. To prevent the premature deterioration of the road system, the performance of flexible pavements must be enhanced. The addition of waste polymers to asphalt mixtures is one method that can significantly enhance the quality of the pavements. This study examined the mechanical properties of asphalt produced from waste plastic polymer-modified bitumen. The addition of thermoplastic polymer (0 to 12%) increased the softening point, viscosity, flash and fire points of bitumen, but decreased its penetration and ductility for the production of hot mix asphalt. The Marshall stability and flow of all asphalt concrete formulations were greater than 9 kN and within 2 - 6 mm of the General Specifications of Nigerian for Road and Bridges, Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, 2016 and the Asphalt Institute, 1991. Modification of asphalt with thermoplastic polymer is suitable for enhancing the performance properties of the asphalt. Additional research is required for the development of recyclable additives that do not significantly increase the final cost of bitumen</p> M. T. Akinleye, L. O. Salami, O. P. Joseph, R. O. Rahmon, I. Tolu-Ilori, O. I. Ogungbola Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Rainfall Trend in Benin and Warri Cities of Southern Nigeria <p>In this study the trends and patterns in the rainfall of Benin and Warri cities in Southern Nigeria were examined. Rainfall data (1983-2014) for Benin and Warri cities were used. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis, coefficient of variation and standardized anomaly index were used as statistical tools to analyze the data and establish the distribution of rainfall in these cities.&nbsp; SPSS 17 and Minitab 16 were used to analyse the data the data obtained.&nbsp; The result of the trend analysis revealed that the year 2005 recorded the lowest annual rainfall of 229.10mm and 1925.8mm for Benin and Warri respectively. The years 2008 and 2011 recorded the highest rainfall of 4489.8mm and 3068.70mm for Warri and Benin respectively. The mean annual rainfall for the study period was 2162.46mm. The&nbsp;&nbsp; annual rainfall trend indicated a progressive increase in the annual rainfall during the period of study.&nbsp; The implications are that 2011 and 2008 recorded the highest rainfall event, including heavy rainfall, that can lead to flooding for Benin and Warri respectively while 2005 recorded the lowest rainfall events that can lead to drier year, potentially affecting crop yield in both cities. It is recommended that water resources managers should make adequate arrangement on how to prevent flooding by designing and constructing water carrying structures, including adequate urban and regional planning.</p> C. C. Emeka-Chris Copyright (c) 2023 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000