ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <p align="justify">The Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment is peer reviewed journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. AZOJETE is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>p-ISSN:</strong> 1596-2490 | <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2545-5818</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong> MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER AND DECEMBER</p> <p>AZOJETE is currently indexed in the following indexing platforms</p> <p><a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoogleScholar</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ACADEMIA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CosmosIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, &nbsp;Bielefeld University Library, IIJIF, SIS, Cosmos Impact Factor, <a href=";subAction=subjects&amp;publisherID=34&amp;journalID=38287&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OAJI</a>,&nbsp; Journal Factor, SPARC Indexing, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAIRE</a>, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Electronic Journals Library, ISI, Social Science Research Centre Berlin, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR), StudyLIB,&nbsp; Journal Finder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Saskatchewan Library</a>,&nbsp; ScopeMed, Microsoft Academic, <a href=";recordsPage=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">efita</a>, JournalFinder, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publons</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ghent University Library</a>, University Library of Regensburg, University of Groningen Library, University of Georgia, Berkeley Library University of California, ProQuest, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN Portal</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PIST</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DRJI</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TEEAL</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href=";View=uba&amp;Language=de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University Library Augsburg.</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Leipzig University Library,</a> <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=44HYG_INST:44HYG_VU1&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=Everything&amp;query=sub,exact,Agricultural%20Engineering%20,AND&amp;mode=advanced" target="_blank" rel="noopener">London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub DASJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SJIF</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University of Braunschweig</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";R=3747465" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Toronto Public Library</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDUINDEX Index of Education</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright of the paper named above is hereby assigned and transferred to the Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> (Prof. N.A. Aviara) (Engr. S.K. Oyeniyi) Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Comparison of Multiple Linear and Quadratic Models in Estimating Road Crashes in Semi-Urban Two-Lane Roads: Case Study of Nsukka Municipal Council, South Eastern Nigeria <p><em>Road crashes are generally characterized by occurrence without prior notice as well as low or moderate to severe losses in terms of lives and properties. In particular, rural communities in developing countries count huge losses to crash exigencies due to lack of basic infrastructure. It is important that such accident trends which possess special and distinct features from those observed for Urban settlement be carefully studied and modeled for effective mitigation strategies. This paper proposes models that quantitatively assess the effects of various causal factors of crashes in rural roads of developing communities. Taking data from Nsukka municipality, South East Nigeria, it provides two reliable, statistically significant techniques of predicting accident rates on such roads. The results show that although important causal variables like “illiteracy, weather condition, alcohol and drugs” affect road accident, “reckless driving, over speeding, annual average daily traffic, poor road and mechanical faults” were variables that demand more assessment and control in road accident management in the studied location. Further, surface comparison of the developed models based on overall statistical indices suggests that multiple linear accident models are more accurate, though the quadratic accident model is statistically significant. A point by point calculation of deviations shows that the quadratic accident model, apart from its ability to take care of non-linearity effects of independent road accident variables, is actually more accurate than the linear model, except where the quadratic model suffered more numerical instability from the combination of numerical parameters.</em></p> P. A. Ozor, C. G. Ozoegwu Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the Accessibility of Public Transport Facilities by Physically Challenged Commuters in Ilorin Town, Nigeria <p><em>Following the persistent outcry of disabled persons over non accessibility to public transport facilities in Ilorin town, Nigeria, this study examined the plight of physically challenged commuters in accessing public transport facilities in the town. Questionnaires were administered to 201 disabled commuters who use public transport facilities in the study area. Facility condition inspection was also used to evaluate accessibility and user satisfaction. Results of the study revealed that; male disabled persons travelled at relatively high rate of 76.10% compared to the female folks at 23.90%. The common disability among disabled persons was physical disability at the rate of 77.10%, while visual disability was 22.90%. Travel demand among disabled persons showed that teenagers and adults travelled at relatively higher rate of 10.00% and 84.00% respectively compared to the aged at 6.00%. Begging and work trip purposes had relatively high rate of 29.35% and 21.38% respectively compared to other trip purposes. The commonest nature of disability among commuters included; wheelchair user, sight impairment and hearing difficulty at 25.40%, 22.90% and 18.90% respectively. Uneducated and disabled persons with primary education rated high in the sampled population at 36.80% and 29.90% respectively. Accessibility rating and physical inspection revealed the poor state of public transport facilities in Ilorin town leading to human right infringement, social exclusion and inequality among city dwellers. Therefore, right to travel and access to basic facilities as stipulated in the Nigerians Disability Decree of 1993 to enhance livability and ensure equality among city dwellers were ignored. The construction of public transport facilities to bear sidewalks, ramps, traffic control devices, bus stop shelter and good drainage systems to conform to international best practices in Ilorin town was recommended.</em></p> K. Jirgba, O. O. Adeleke, P. T. Adeke Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Design and Implementation of Internet of Things Based Irrigation System <p><em>This work considered the design and implementation of an Internet of things (IoT) based irrigation system that encourages efficient and optimal use of water management practice. The proposed IoT based irrigation system promotes user acknowledgment practice on farmlands by monitoring the soil moisture value and other environmental parameters. This system, which is based on IoT, stores the sensor data, and the water pump can be monitored via the internet using a ThingSpeak channel. Using a micro-controller which coordinates system activities, a wireless fidelity (WIFI) module which transmits the sensed data to the cloud, a motor driver which controls the pump, a digital temperature and humidity (DHT)11 sensor which monitors &nbsp;environmental parameters, and a YL-69 soil moisture sensor, an IoT based irrigation system is implemented. Results obtained showed that the system irrigates the soil based on the defined threshold value of the soil moisture in order to promote efficient and optimal utilization of water management practice. Additi</em><em>onally, </em><em>farmers can monitor the irrigation processes remotely from a ThingSpeak channel, which gives a graphical representation of the soil moisture value, pump status, temperature and humidity value as well as the flow rate within the environment.</em></p> A. A. Okandeji, F. Onaifo, M. T. Kabir, K. Yakubu Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Floating and Suspended Materials for Reducing Evaporation Losses in Small Water Bodies <p><em>Evaporation is recognized as environmental process which can significantly reduce the quality and quantity of stored water available for industrial, agricultural and household purposes. However, this process is dependent on several meteorological factors such as water and air temperature, wind speed and atmospheric humidity. Thus, water savings especially in regions experiencing little rainfall resulting in low runoff events is crucial to enhanced optimum water usage by adopting the use of cover materials on ponds. Covering of water bodies could effectively help in reducing evaporation from open water bodies. This research aimed at investigating the effectiveness of two locally available materials, viz; plastic paint covers and weaved thatch grass. They are used as floating and suspended covers respectively for reducing evaporation. Three evaporation pans were used in this study. One pan was left uncovered as control (Pan C), another pan was covered with plastic paint covers (Pan A) while the last pan was shaded with weaved thatch grass (Pan B). Data were collected during dry season on weekly basis at 6:00 pm. &nbsp;This time-window was chosen because it is the hottest and driest months in Maiduguri. Sensitivity analysis was conducted between evaporation and climatic variables. The results show that evaporation is strongly correlated with temperature with R2 values of 0.8930, 0.9438 and 0.9566 for pans A, B and C respectively. It was also observed that the maximum monthly average percentage reduction (water savings) was found for Pan A to be 39.43%, 42.38%, 33.27%, and 45.14% compared to Pan B with 17.98%, 20.10%, 9.21%, and 32.55% for the months of March, April, May and June respectively. This comparison was relative to Pan C as baseline data. Additionally, plastic paint cover was found to be a good material for reducing evaporation from open water body compared to the suspended weaved thatch. Therefore, Plastic paint cover is recommended for use in reducing evaporation losses in small water bodies.</em></p> S. G. Yadima, I. O. Ibiang, A. N. Jones Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Performance Evaluation of Soiling Mitigation Technique for Solar Panels. <p><em>Soiling is the accumulation of dust, leaves, and debris on the surface of photovoltaic modules which affects its overall conversion efficiency. Globally, several researches have indicated that with an increase in dust accumulation, the efficiency of the solar panels can drop by approximately 50%. This research aimed at increasing the efficiency of solar panels by mitigating the effects of soiling. The panel was incorporated with a dust sensor that senses increment in dust settlement and a DC Fan/blower which was placed in a position covering the surface of the panel. The speed of the installed fan can be varied using an L293D motor driver. It is actuated when the light intensity of the module falls below a set threshold. Solar energy parameters of the panel were measured and displayed on the constructed onboard controller. A comprehensive analysis was carried out on the design and the results show a 72% &nbsp;increase in efficiency after mitigation which reflects that controlled wind is an ideal technique in eliminating dust on solar panels.</em></p> M. A. Afolayan, T. N. Olayiwola, Q. T. Nurudeen, O. Ibrahim, I. S. Madugu Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development of Multi Seeds Oil Expeller <p><em>Multi seeds oil expeller was designed fabricated and evaluated using screw press principle. It was designed and fabricated based on the data obtained on the properties of the oilseeds. The performance of the machine was carried out using a 3</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>x</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>3</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>x</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>3 factorial experimental design with the following type of seeds (palm kernel, soya bean and groundnut seed), worm shaft speed of 47.6, 87and 92 rpm, and moisture content of 5, 10, and 15 % &nbsp;w.b as factors. Data collected include oil yield, volumetric flow rate of oil, throughput capacity and efficiency of the machine. The results showed that increase in moisture content as stated has direct effect on oil yield and efficiency of the expeller, but has an inverse effect on volumetric flow rate for the three oil seeds. Increase in worm shaft speed as stated increased oil recovery for palm kernel from 19.1 to 23.0%, soya beans from 0.0 to 16.0% and groundnut from 7.3 to 31.7%. Increase in worm shaft speed as stated increased the oil yield, throughput capacity as well as the efficiency of the machine for all the oil seeds. The efficiency increased from 39.4 to 52.1%; 0.0 to 82.1% and 53.1 to 72.0% for palm kernel; soya bean and groundnut, respectively. These results were found to be significant (p&lt;0.05) when tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test. &nbsp;The study concluded that, the developed multi-seed expeller performed well within the conditions of operation and could have a potential for improving the production of vegetable oil if adopted by small and medium scale processors</em><em>.</em></p> I. O. Olaoye, Y. A. Salako, O. K. Owolarafe Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Characterization of Synthesized Zeolite Socony Mobile 5 (ZSM-5) from Bularafa Diatomite. <p><em>In this study, a highly siliceous ZSM-5 zeolite with elemental silicon to aluminium ratio of 250 was synthesized using Bularafa diatomite as silica source. The diatomite was used to produce silica sol which was used with alumina in the presence of organic template (tetrapropyl ammonium bromide, TPABr) to form ZSM-5 under hydrothermal reaction at low temperature and atmospheric pressure in alkaline medium. The synthesized ZSM-5 was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>&nbsp;adsorption and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET) method&nbsp;revealed that the ZSM-5 produced from Bularafa diatomite have very high specific surface area of 619&nbsp;m</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;g</em><em><sup>–1</sup></em><em>.</em></p> S. Yunusa, A. S. Ahmed, M. Yusuf, S. G. Bawa Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Performance Evaluation of a Manually Operated Groundnut Roaster <p><em>A manually operated groundnut roaster was developed and evaluated. The present Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria (IAR) roasting equipment consists of a frying pan and an IAR charcoal fire wood cooking stove. The roaster was designed to help local processors obtain uniformly roasted products, with acceptable roast color. The performance of the roaster was carried out using IAR groundnut species known as SAMNUT 11 as specimen. The roaster was found to have a roasting capacity of 0.92 kg/min which is above the (IAR) roaster that has a roasting capacity of 0.28 kg/min. The roaster was found to have efficiencies of 98.3%, 98.6%, and 98.9% at 25%, 50% 100% loadings, respectively. The parameters that affect the roasting capacity include: heat from charcoal, crop moisture content and crop variety.</em></p> Y. A. Unguwanrimi, S. A. Okaiyeto, A. M. Sada, S. I. Ogijo, J. B. Jonga, N. Oji Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 An Efficient Technique for the Reduction of Packet Loss in Wireless Sensor Network <p><em>This paper, presents an efficient technique for the reduction of packet losses in wireless sensor network (WSN), which occurs because of buffer overflow and subsequently congestion. A key design feature for wireless sensor network is to have less packet loss, as more packet loss degrades the Quality of service (QoS) of the transmitted information and retransmitting such, a packet can use up the energy of the nodes. Regardless of a number of efforts made to alleviate this problem, networks still experiences packet losses because of congestion and topology change. A congestion avoidance algorithm, which is based on an active queue management technique, was proposed in this work. The new technique, called a Refined Adaptive Random Early Detection (RARED) technique was used to control the maximum packet drop probability to be within 0.01 and 0.5, which is equivalently between 1% and 50%, thereby reducing the rate of packet loss and increasing the throughput. Simulation results obtained using Network simulator 2, showed that the proposed algorithm attained a reduction in packet loss of 5.7% against the existing Priority-based Fairness Rate Control (PFRC) in WSN.</em></p> K. K. Nnamani, A. D. Usman, K. A. Abubilal Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Pollution on Soil via E-Waste Dumping Activities and Unpolluted Soil in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria <p><em>This research investigated the concentration of heavy metals pollution of soil via e-waste dumping in Abraka community. Two soil samples were obtained and analyzed through digestion and the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentration of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn) on the polluted soil &nbsp;were higher than the control soil at depths 0 – 10 cm and 10 – 20 cm (25.55 and 22.65 mg/kg, 10.19 and 8.65 mg/kg, 78.15 and 51.16 mg/kg) and lower in depth 20 – 30 cm (10.82, 6.55 and 41.98 mg/kg). While the concentration of iron (Fe) on the polluted soil is higher than that of the control and also decreased across depths (1096.60, 652.02 and 420.43 mg/kg). The concentration of antimony (Sb) and arsenic(As) shows no much difference across the depths. Statistically, there was a much difference between the six metals (t = 0.595, p = 3.020) for cobalt, (t = 0.222, p = 1.440) for chromium, (t = 0.969, p = 25.42) for manganese, (t = 0.092, p = 71.15) for iron and (t = 0.038, p = 0.020) for both antimony and arsenic respectively. It was observed that concentration of the metals under study were lower than Dutch optimum and action values, except for Co in depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. The mean and median of cobalt, chromium, manganese and iron show relatively close differences on the polluted soil at depths &nbsp;0 – 10 cm and 10 – 20 cm, while at depth 20 – 30 cm, there is no relative closeness .The reverse is the case for control soil, except for antimony and arsenic which shows no pollution effects. The contamination factors for Co showed 1 &lt; C</em><em>F</em><em>&nbsp;≤ 3 (10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) and 1 &lt; C</em><em>F</em><em><sub>&nbsp;</sub></em><em>(0-10 cm), while Cr, Sb, Mn, Fe and As also show &nbsp;1 &lt; C</em><em>F</em><em><sub>&nbsp;</sub></em><em>(0-10 cm). &nbsp;There is clear evidence of pollution when the concentrations of polluted and unpolluted soils were compared. As such an effort should be made by the government to monitor the indiscriminate dumping of e-waste in the community in order to avoid such pollution level.</em></p> O. B. Eyenubo, O. Peretomode, F. Egharevba, S. A. Osakwe Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development of a Simple, Movable, Indoor Soil Bin Equipped with some Novel Measuring and Soil Preparation Devices <p><em>Challenged by the complexities involved in constructing a standard indoor soil bin, and the difficulties in taking certain measurements before, during and after soil bin experiments, a simple soil bin was developed. The soil bin was mainly made with wooden slabs and angle irons. it was equipped with a digitized, mechanically operated cone penetrometer, a sinkage measurement system as well as a stepless soil leveler. An existing manually operated ASABE standard penetrometer was digitized using strain gauges fixed on the penetrometer ring for force measurements and a distance meter for concurrent depth measurement. The penetrometer was operated by a 90 W linear motor with a switch located outside the soil bin thereby making it possible to measure cone index at constant speed in a perfectly vertical direction. The calibration of the strain gauges and the distance meter showed good linearity (</em><em>R</em><sup>2</sup><em>&gt;0.997). A stepless levelling device that allows for seamless vertical adjustment of soil height was developed. Soil surfaces levelled with this device had an average coefficient of variation of 0.040 compared with that of 0.080 achieved from carefully manually levelled soil beds. Soil compaction and compaction uniformity experiment was done using sandy clay loam soil which was compacted with a 27 cm diameter steel roller weighing 103 kg/m. Two ultrasonic range finders mounted at the front and rear of the compactor cart automatically measured the sinkage of the soil surface after the compaction. The sinkage on the soil surface and the uniformity in cone index were significantly affected by the number of layers and roller passages and compaction uniformity increases with increase in the number of soil layers. Therefore, the accuracy of the measuring systems and the structural stability of the various components of the soil bin indicate that they are suitable for experiments.</em></p> O. Oyebode, K. Shoji Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Corrosion inhibition of mild steel determined using blended bitter leaf (Vernonnia amygdalina) extract and honey in dilute H2SO4 and HCl acid solutions <p><em>The inhibitive effect of bitter leaf extract (Veronia amygdalina) and honey hybrid on the corrosion of mild steel in dilute H</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>SO</em><em><sub>4</sub></em><em>&nbsp;and HCl solutions was investigated using weight loss method. Various concentrations of the leaf extract and honey (5 to 25ml), and immersion times (96 to 240hrs) were recorded at room temperature (32°C), which were used to calculate the corrosion rates and inhibition effects. Inhibition was found to increase with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of honey as inhibitor on the corrosion of mild steel in dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution with 54% efficiency and dilute H</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>SO</em><em><sub>4</sub></em><em>&nbsp;acid solution with 48.03% inhibition efficiency were not as effective as that of hybrid with 72.48% inhibition efficiency. The results obtained indicated that both bitter leaf extract and honey could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in dilute H</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>SO</em><em><sub>4</sub></em><em>&nbsp;acid and dilute HCl solution.</em></p> M. A. Abba-Aji, A. B. Muhammad, D. D. Onwe Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Performance Evaluation of Solar Oven Using Kapok Wool as Insulation Material <p><em>Solar ovens are among common devices which utilize insulation materials because of their ability to retards heat transfer by acting as barriers in the path of heat flow. Previous solar box cookers have used cotton, saw dust, and fibre-glass as insulation materials but none has used Kapok wool despite its potential. This study is aimed at the performance evaluation of solar oven using Kapok wool as the insulation material. The solar box oven designed is of the size 59 x 56 x 36cm dimensions made of plywood, with an aperture area of 3304cm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;double glass cover and an oven’s floor area of 1225cm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;made of aluminum. Kapok wool was used to line the oven’s walls and floor serving as insulator. The solar box oven was tested at the University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. It was tested without load to determine its stagnation temperature and to check its endurance under stagnation conditions. </em><em>Similarly, a water boiling test was conducted to cook rice and beans.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The results show that &nbsp;maximum stagnation temperature was 165.1°C and maximum overall daily thermal efficiency of 19.44% was achieved on a clear day test without reflector. The field test of the solar oven demonstrated its ability to cook rice and beans well with 1 kg of rice cooked under 2 hours, while 1 kg of beans was cooked under 1 hour 45 minutes on the same day. This performance demonstrated the suitability of Kapok wool as insulation material for solar ovens.</em></p> A. T. Abdulrahim, S. Abdulkareem, M. Haruna, A. S. Abdulraheem, F. A. Oluwole, G. M. Ngala, U. A. Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of NSPRI Solar Dryers for Yam Chips Production (Elubo) <p><em>This study evaluated the two solar dryers developed at Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) - Parabolic Shaped Solar Dryer (PSSD) and Solar Tent Dryer (STD). The evaluation was conducted using yam chips (Elubo) in Ilorin. The yam chip was soaked in water at three different temperatures: 80, 90 and 100°C, and allowed to cool in the water for 15 hours prior to drying. The yam samples were then spread on trays in each of the PSSD, STD dryers and Ambient. A TEKCOPLUS THTK-6, K- Type 4-channel thermocouple was fitted in each of the dryers to monitor the drying temperature inside the dryers and ambient. The study considered sun drying as the control. The product samples were subjected to proximate composition determination. The moisture content of the samples was also monitored daily. Means of data collected were compared using graphs and 2-way ANOVA using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 20. The results showed higher temperatures recorded in the dryers (PSSD= 40.77 ± 1.24°C and STD= 34.62 ± 0.70°C) compared to what was obtained in the ambient (33.59 ± 0.38°C). This resulted in a higher drying rate in PSSD and STD at an average of 0.57 kg/day and 0.52 kg/day respectively compared to the control (0.46 kg/day). Drying in PSSD was completed in 3 days with final moisture content of 7.53%, while it lasted for 4 days in STD and Control with final moisture contents of 8.98% and 9.37% respectively. Similarly, carbohydrate and crude protein were found to be significantly higher in samples dried in PSSD compared to STD and the Controlled samples (P≤0.05). The result of microbial quality evaluation revealed that the bacteria and fungi counts of the dried yam chip samples inside PSSD and STD were within the acceptable standard of ≤ 300 Cfu/ml, lower than that of the control sample where higher value (1.80 x 10</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>&nbsp;Cfu/ml) was recorded. Therefore, both PSSD and STD are potentially viable for safe production of yam chips of high quality for human consumption.</em></p> J. M. Ogunsua, O. P. Akomolafe, S. N. Oyewole, O. Ajiboye, M. O. Zubair, Y. D. Idris, F. M. Omopariola, O. A. Adeiza, F. F. Olayemi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Design Analysis of Microcontroler Based Automatic Power Management in Photovoltaic Systems <p><em>This work considered the design analysis of an energy management system to control the state of battery discharge of a solar power system without any form of load discrimination, thus preventing a sudden system shut down. The state of discharge of the storage battery is monitored by the voltage level sensor. In particular, four voltage levels were used in this work namely: 11.5V (for less critical), 11.0V, 10.5V and 10.0V (for most critical load). The outputs of the sensors are then connected to a microcontroller which is programmed to isolate the loads in the order of priority. Tests result showed that at different voltage levels, specific load was disconnected from the desired voltage thus, stored energy was efficiently conserved. Accordingly, this prototype design ensures efficient energy management in photovoltaic systems.</em></p> A. A. Okandeji, F. Onaifo, O. O. Olaluwoye, S. N. Ukagu, B. O. Sosanya, I. E. Imobhio Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Parametric Optimization and Determination of a Suitable Welding Process for Stainless Steel-Mild Steel Dissimilar Metals Weld <p><em>Difficulties associated with dissimilar metals welding differ remarkably and can be minimized with the selection of a suitable joining process, modification of the joining technique, and the adoption of optimal process parameters. This study investigates the suitability of three fusion welding processes (gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), gas metal arc weld (GMAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)) in the welding of stainless steel to mild steel plates based on their mechanical properties and observed weld defects. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process which turned out to be the most suitable of the three, recording the least imperfections, an efficiency in mechanical properties of 8% higher compared to the other processes, furthermore analyzed using the response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain a models of the input and output relationship, as well as the optimal process parameters was conducted. An optimal parameters of 461.88N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em> for the tensile strength and 31.65% for the Elongation was observed at the combined input parameters of 200 amp, 15 volt, 20 l/min, and 2.4mm for the weld current, arc voltage, gas flow rate and filler rod respectively. Therefore, the application of optimal process parameters along with a compatible weld process is recommended in the welding of dissimilar metals to guarantee excellent weld qualities.</em></p> S. O. Sada, L. C. Enyi Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Structural Efficiency of Concrete Containing Crushed Bone Aggregates <p><em>The indiscriminate dumping of animal waste, especially cow bones in abattoir has brought about the need for adequate safe disposal and recycling of such waste. This study investigated the use of crushed bones as a partial substitute for fine aggregate and its efficiency in concrete structures. Sieve analysis test was conducted on the crushed bone and used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight. &nbsp;Slump test on the fresh concrete was investigated, while the density, compressive strength test and structural efficiency of the hardened concrete were also determined. The sieve analysis result revealed that the crushed bone was poorly graded, and the slump test showed that the 25% of crushed bone concrete has a low slump. The density was 2370 kg/m</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>, the compressive strength was 17.10N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;at 28 days, while the structural efficiency was 7.22. The 50, 75 and 100% samples has compressive strength of 16 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>, 6.10N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;and 4 N/mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;at 28 days respectively and these values are far below expectations. The work concluded that crushed bones could partially replace fine aggregate in lightweight concrete at not more than 25% by weight. This test is limited to a short-term test of 28 days.</em></p> J. O. Akinyele, H. A. Kehinde, U. T. Igba Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Five-Factor Response Surface Optimisation of Hydrochloric Acid Dissolution of Alumina from a Nigerian Clay <p><em>The major challenge encountered in the process of making the acid dissolution of alumina from clays economically viable is the determination of the optimum conditions of the key process variables in order to enhance efficient recovery. High alumina recovery from clays can be achieved by determining the optimum conditions of the process variables during optimization. In this research, using the experimental design, the combined effects of five independent variables (calcination temperature, leaching temperature, acid concentration, stirring speed and liquid/solid ratio) on the yield of alumina from the local clay was studied and the second order polynomial regression equation was developed to evaluate the influence of the five independent variables on alumina yield. Model adequacy test was performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 0.9209 was obtained as the correlation value between the experimental responses and the predicted responses. &nbsp;The optimum yield of alumina was obtained as 80.07% at 677.27°C heat of activation; 65.18°C leaching temperature; 1.9mol/cm</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>HCl concentration; 10.36 liquid-solid weight ratio and 442.92rpm stirring speed.</em></p> H. O. Orugba, O. D. Onukwuli, A. K. Babayemi, J. C. Umezuegbu Copyright (c) 2020 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment published by University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500